Think Tanks

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For the tobacco industry, think tanks play an important role in indirect lobbying of government. Denied direct lobbying access to governments due to Article 5.3 of the UN Convention on Tobacco Control, an obvious route to influence policy and debate is by funding think tanks. This is called Third Party Techniques. Below is a list of think tanks from around the world which have supported tobacco industry positions and, in many cases, accepted funding without publicising the source. None of these organisations have broken any laws. For many of them we provide individual pages giving even more background information which can be found by clicking on the title of the organisation.

Lack of Transparency

In the UK and the US most right-wing and libertarian think tanks do not disclose who funds them, so the link to the tobacco industry, if it exists, is often hidden. The millions of tobacco industry documents in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library do show that certain leading right wing UK think tanks such as the Adam Smith Institute and the Institute of Economic Affairs used to receive tobacco funding. While the IEA does not disclose its funding sources and has repeatedly received a “one star” (the lowest) rating by transparency watchdog Transparency International 1 it is known to have received funding from British American Tobacco (BAT) since 1963, and to date (January 2019) BAT describes itself as an IEA member in the EU Transparency Register.2 As can be seen in the list below, such a lack of transparency is not limited to the UK.

Benefits to the industry

The benefit for tobacco companies is that these think tanks provide an echo-chamber for the industry, especially if they dress up the smoking and health debate in terms of freedom, the “nanny state” and excessive regulation. Michael Prideaux, BAT’s former communications director concedes that “I think the libertarian argument resonates among people who wouldn’t normally take notice of what the tobacco industry say”. 3

List of think tanks allied with the tobacco industry

Global and Regional Think Tanks

American European Community Association
Founded in 1981 by the British politician Roy Jenkins and the chairman of Rothmans International Sir David Nicolson, its objectives are to encourage free trade, the sharing of knowledge, political cooperation and closer cultural links.
Anti-Counterfeiting Group
Established by British American Tobacco (BAT), the group has grown to more than 150 industry members, including tobacco companies. It has lobbied against tobacco controls on plain packaging.
Atlas Network
This powerful libertarian think tank (originally named the Atlas Economic Research Foundation) was founded in 1981. It aims to strengthen a global network of partners that promote market-based policy solutions. Has received funding from BAT, Japan Tobacco International (JTI) and Philip Morris International (PMI). Previously board members have worked for, or had connections with, the tobacco industry.
Consumer Choice Center
The Consumer Choice Center (CCC) is a lobby group which was set up by the US-based Students for Liberty in 2017, with staff in the United States, Canada and the EU. The CCC promotes looser regulation of consumer products in reportedly more than 100 countries, covering, for example food and agriculture policies, food and soda taxes, food labelling, health care and tobacco harm reduction. CCC has received funding from Japan Tobacco International, who co-funded its launch event and is a member of the Center, and Philip Morris.
Crime Stoppers International
Crime Stoppers International describes itself as a “global non-profit organization representing seven regions committed to support law enforcement efforts to prevent and solve crime by mobilizing citizens to anonymously report illegal activity”. They have collaborated with tobacco companies on campaigns around illicit trade.
The Digital Coding and Tracking Association (DCTA) is a front group, launched in 2013 by the four multinational tobacco companies: BAT, Imperial Tobacco, Japan Tobacco International and Philip Morris. The DCTA has promoted the industry’s tobacco tracking and tracing technology, Codentify, often without disclosing its relationship to the tobacco industry.
EPICENTER, or the European Policy Information Center, was launched in 2014 and funded entirely by the Institute of Economic Affairs which has a long history of tobacco industry funding. It is a collective of European think tanks, which provides a ”free-market perspective” in European policy debates on topics including public health. EPICENTER has challenged the EU Tobacco Products Directive.
Factasia, a Hong Kong-based lobby group, promotes looser regulations of tobacco and e-cigarettes across Asia. It says that it does not speak for the tobacco industry4. The group was formed in 2013 to “represent the rights of smokers at government level”. One of its two co-founders had worked in the tobacco industry.5 Philip Morris remains one of its funders.6 Other supporters supply services to the tobacco industry.6
Foundation for a Smoke-Free World
The Foundation for a Smoke-Free World describes itself as “an independent, private foundation formed and operated free from the control or influence of any third party” but is solely funded by Philip Morris Internaional (PMI). It was established in September 2017 and formally launched at the Global Tobacco and Nicotine Forum 2017 with a budget of $80m annually.
Kangaroo Group
Set up in 1979, the Kangaroo Group promotes free trade across the European Union and brings together an impressive roster of politicians, academics and business people. It has senior representatives from big four tobacco companies as members. It has regularly echoed tobacco industry arguments around Tobacco Smuggling.
Knowledge Action Change
This London-based business describes itself as a “private sector public health agency”. It has received more than $1million in contracts from the Foundation for a Smoke-Free World. It also organises the Global Forum on Nicotine which has links with the tobacco industry. For more information see the page on director Gerry Stimson
The Mentor Group
The Mentor Group Institute for Intercultural Education, known as The Mentor Group, is an American think tank established in 1983. Its purpose is “to conduct legal and economic studies and research for scholars and officials” in the US and Europe. It has a number of policy offshoots which lobby EU decision makers. BAT was a member for many years but no tobacco companies are currently listed.
Students for Liberty
An international network for young libertarians connected with well-established think tanks. It has published articles attacking plain packaging7’ and extolling the virtues of cigarettes for women.8

North American Think Tanks

American Legislative Exchange Council
ALEC is a powerful American organisation of conservative state legislators dedicated to limited government, free markets and federalism. It is comprised of nearly one-quarter of the US state legislators and stakeholders.9 It has been openly against plain-packaging and has lobbied globally on this.10It has received funding from tobacco firm Altria,11 most recently in 2018.12
American Enterprise Institute
The AEI says: “We welcome civil disagreement because we believe that a competition of ideas is essential to a free society.”13 Founded in 1938 this free market think tank is interested in a range of social issues, including tobacco. It has argued that it is a mistake not to take money from tobacco companies when researching that area14 – and has taken money from Altria from 2011 to 2018.12 It has testified on behalf of IQOS before the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)and argued that tobacco taxes cause crime.15 One of their most prolific tobacco advocates is visiting scholar Roger Bate.16
Americans for Prosperity Foundation
Americans for Prosperity Foundation organises community-level trainings on a free-market, open society and limited-government approach.17 It was founded in 2004, with an advocacy focus on conservative and libertarian principles. It has received funding from Reynolds American, a subsidiary of BAT and from Altria.18 The Foundation has campaigned against plain packaging and promotes anti-tax arguments in the US.19
Americans for Tax Reform
Americans for Tax Reform (ATR) opposes all tax increases as a principle.20 Founded in 1985, ATR organizes the Taxpayer Protection Pledge, which asks all candidates for federal and state office to commit themselves in writing to oppose all net tax increases – including on tobacco. It lobbied the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in favour of the Philip Morris International (PMI) IQOS product.21 ATR has received funding from Altria12 JTI and BAT.11
Buckeye Institute
The Buckeye Institute (formerly The Buckeye Institute for Public Policy Solutions) is a conservative advocacy group based in Ohio.22 It was founded in 1984 as the Buckeye Center, in part by the Atlas Network‘s former president, John Blundell. The Center has argued that raising cigarette taxes does more harm than good.23. It has previously sued Ohio state over smoking ban legislation.24The Center has received funding from Altria over the past 10 years and as recently as 2018.1112
Canadian Taxpayers Federation
The Canadian Taxpayers Federation (CTF) is a non-profit grassroot organisation dedicated to lower taxes and accountable government. The CTF was founded in Saskatchewan in 1990 and says it has 141,000 supporters nation-wide. It is openly against plain packaging and raising tobacco taxes and promotes access to tobacco farming.2526
Competitive Enterprise Institute
The Competitive Enterprise Institute is a Washington DC-based think tank, promoting free markets and limited government while opposing regulation, including tobacco control laws. Its ties to the tobacco industry go back to 1991, with the most recent donation originating from Altria in 2018.12
Cascade Policy Institute
The Cascade Policy Institute is a think tank located in Oregon and a member of the State Policy Network (SPN). Cascade promotes free-market values and limited government. It is against increasing tobacco taxes and has received funding from Altria from 2011 to 2018.1112 In 2015, then President John A Charles Jr testified before the state Senate that tobacco users had paid “more than their fair share” and did not deserve more taxes.27
Cato Institute
The Cato Institute is a Washington D.C-based think tank, that was founded by Charles G. Koch. This libertarian organization is also part of the Atlas Network. The Cato Institute has received tobacco funding, most recently from Altria.28 It has been listed by PMI as a “strategic ally”.29
Center of the American Experiment
The Center of the American Experiment is a right-wing lobby group from Minnesota, a member of the State Policy Network and has received funding from tobacco industry.30 This group has been openly against tobacco taxes and they often use tobacco industry arguments about illicit trade and smuggling, pro-vaping, among others in the articles published on its website.31
Freedom Foundation
The Freedom Foundation is a libertarian think tank, founded in 1991. This organisation has many different projects which promote lower taxes and limited government.32 It has accepted funding from Altria in 2012 and 2013.28
Georgia Public Policy Foundation
A free market think-tank which has opposed tobacco tax increases33 and editorialised on favour of IQOS.34The Foundation does not reveal its corporate funders but has taken money from Altria.35
Goldwater Institute
Named after the right-wing Arizona senator, the Institute is active in court and legislatures advocating free market approaches. Regularly receives tobacco industry funding11 and regularly campaigns against tobacco taxes and testified in favour of IQOS.36
Grassroot Institute of Hawaii
The Institute says that tobacco taxes proponents “never advertise the hidden costs of such policies, which can include rampant smuggling as well as violence against people, property and police” without offering any evidence.37 It has received tobacco industry funding and campaigned against raising the age with which to buy cigarettes.38
Heartland Institute
The Heartland Institute has a specific ‘’Consumer Freedom Lounge’’ on its website to promote its thinking on alcohol and smoking. It is the “place to go for sound science, economics, and legal commentary on tobacco issues”. The Institute has challenged the evidence on second-hand smoke, argued against smoking bans and tax increases and now supports e-cigarettes. The Institute has accepted industry funding.
Heritage Foundation
The Foundation describes its mission as “to formulate and promote conservative public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense.”39 It has consistently opposed increasing tobacco taxation and moved into support for vaping and lobbied for approval of the Philip Morris International (PMI) IQOS product.40 There is a long history of tobacco funding11 for this well-connected and vocal think tank which has a global reach.
Idaho Freedom Foundation
The Foundation is a relative newcomer having launched in 2009 and describes itself as a “tireless watchdog against government waste”.41 It has regularly opposed raising tobacco taxes. Vice-president Fred Birnbaum told a state committee in 2018 that it should not pass a law raising the smoking age to 21 since smokers die earlier there would be no health care savings.42 Its 2019 Freedom Index ranks state politicians on how they voted against a number of bills which the foundation had decided where negative or positive. Among the bills which would count against a politician was support for H0280. This would have made it an offense to smoke or vape in a vehicle with a minor present.43The Foundation doesn’t reveal its donors but is known to have received funding from Altria regularly over the last decade.11
Illinois Policy Institute
The Illinois Policy Institute says that it: “generates marketable policy solutions to unleash Illinois’ talent and entrepreneurial spirit.”44 It has opposed local tobacco control policies such as funding for quit telephone lines45 and raising the smoking age to 21 saying: “With the general public kicking smoking habits by themselves, an additional law such as this may not be needed.”46. It has received funding from Altria between 2011 and 2017.11
Independence Institute
The Colorado-based free-market think tank, which describes itself as an “action tank”, opposes tobacco tax rises arguing they lead to increases in Tobacco Smuggling.47 It hosts an annual Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms party. The Institute’s financial ties to tobacco stretch back to the 1990s.48 has received regular donations from Altria since 2011.11
Independent Women’s Forum
This US-based free-market think tank focuses on social policy issues for women. It has testified in favour of IQOS49 and editorialising about “media panics” on vaping. It says that “women are the biggest losers from Bloomberg’s anti-e-cigarette propaganda.”50 It accepted Philip Morris industry funding as far back as 199848 and has received donations from Altria11.
James Madison Institute
The Florida-based think tank regularly campaigns for lower taxes and has taken Altria funding for several years11 and testified in favour of IQOS.49 Sal Nuzzo, vice president of policy at the Institute, has argued that regulations on e-cigarettes should be relaxed.51.
Josiah Bartlett Centre for Public Policy
Named after a New Hampshire politician, the center maintains opposition to tobacco taxes while being discrete about its own funding – which includes donations in the past from Altria.11 The center’s president, Andrew Cline, has argued that New Hampshire should not tax e-cigarettes as it does tobacco.52
MacIver Institute
A US free-market think tank which has lobbied in opposition to tobacco control policies and in support of relaxed e-cigarette regulation in Wisconsin. The Institute has received regular donations from Altria since 2014.11
Mackinac Center for Public Policy
Established in 1987 in Michigan, the Centre promotes free markets and aggressively challenges regulation in local government, including on public health. It has attacked numerous tobacco control policies, echoing industry arguments, particularly around smuggling.5354. In 2016 it released a major report highlighting what it saw as the link between high tax and illicit trade.55 It has received regular donations from Altria since 2011.11
Manhattan Institute for Policy Research
The Manhattan Institute is a free-market think tank which has consistently supported tobacco industry campaigns, most recently around e-cigarettes.56 As far back as 1995 it hosted a meeting on junk science organised by Philip Morris and featuring politicians and academics.57. It has received tobacco funding since the 1990s48 until at least 2015.11
Mercatus Center at George Mason University
Based at George Mason University, the Center produces research how markets can solve social problems and says it has a strict policy of academic independence.58 It often echoes industry arguments around the unintended consequences of tax increases.59 It has received industry donations since 2011.11
National Center for Public Policy Research
The centre’s Risk Analysis Division says it considers tobacco and e-cigarette polices “from a free-market and science-based perspective”. It regularly editorialises on the benefits of e-cigarettes and supports lower tobacco taxes. In 2014, the Center’s Jeff Stier was removed from COP-6 as an observer because of tobacco industry links, a move he was unhappy with.60. The Center has testified on behalf of IQOS49 and was considered a key ally of Philip Morris International.61 It is a regular recipient of industry donations.11
Platte Institute for Economic Research
This research group is focused on tax policies and government regulations and says its “mission is to advance policies that remove barriers to growth and opportunity in Nebraska.”62. The Institute promotes free-markets and has openly criticized tobacco taxes arguing, for instance, that a planned increase in 2016 would be a barrier to economic growth.63. Three years later it criticised the State for using money from tobacco litigation compensation to plug gaps in its overall budget.64 It has received funding from Altria from 2013 until at least 2017.65
R Street Institute
Formed by former employees from the Heartland Institute, this think tank shares a similar outlook though says it adopts a coalition approach.66. It has supported deregulation on e-cigarettes and indeed has a whole section on its website harm reduction which echo industry arguments.67 That support has included lobbying the Food and Drug Administration on reducing regulations. For example Carrie Wade, its director of harm reduction who has written extensively on the issue, said that a decision in 2017 by the FDA to postpone regulations on e-cigarettes “feels like a vindication that someone is listening”.68 Although it keeps its donor details secret Altria has provided funding since 2014.6911
Reason Foundation
The Reason Foundation says that its: “Nonpartisan public policy research promotes choice, competition, and a dynamic market economy as the foundation for human dignity and progress.”70. The think tank has argued against raising tobacco taxes,71 and raising the age to buy cigarettes to 21. It publishes a monthly newsletter on harm reduction edited by Guy Bentley. He previously contributed to a report on “sin taxes” by the Adam Smith Institute.72. The newsletter regularly carries articles calling for reductions in regulations surrounding e-cigarettes, such as bans on flavours.7374. The Foundation has received donations from Altria from 2011 to 201812
Rio Grande Foundation
The Rio Grande Foundation was founded in 2000 and focuses on the state of New Mexico.75. The institute has openly opposed a number of tax regulations in the US, in particular on tobacco. It has argued that: “Since the poor disproportionately smoke, the tax hike will hit them much harder than middle- and upper-income consumers.”76 The Foundation is a member of the State Policy Network and it has received funding from Altria from 2011 until 2018.77
State Policy Network
A network of more than 160 associated and affiliated think tanks spread across America,78 many of which take similar, industry-friendly, positions on e-cigarettes and tobacco taxation. In October 2019 the Network hosts its annual meeting putting on training events for members from across the country. Altria is one the overall sponsors and also sponsors a breakfast talk entitled “Is the end of cannabis prohibition in the United States near?”79 The network’s financial links to the tobacco industry stretch back to the 1990s80 and up to 2018 when it took money from Altria,81 though it describes itself as fiercely independent.11
Tax Foundation
Founded in 193782 the Foundation regularly argues against tobacco taxes and particularly increasing them.8384 It has argued that taxes only increase smuggling rates.85. The Foundation’s finance reports on its website for 2017 show just under a third of its $5.3m income came from corporations86 but individual donors are not identified. However Altria has been a supporter since 2011 and as recently as 2020.1187
A US free-market think tank specialising in technology and promoting minimal regulation of innovation. It has lobbied Congress on the benefits of e-cigarettes88 and lobbied on behalf of Philip Morris International‘s IQOS 89. The organisation has taken funding from Altria from 2016 to 2018.12
Thomas Jefferson Institute for Public Policy
Based on the tobacco heartland of Virginia, the Thomas Jefferson Institute for Public Policy says that it provides: “Virginia’s political, business, academic, community and media leadership with thoughtful, realistic, useful and non-partisan analysis of public policy issues.”90 It publishes an annual study on cigarette taxes. The 2019 report argues that increased taxes impact people on low incomes, small businesses and rarely meet projections.91 The front page of the study says it was funded by Altria Client Services on behalf of Philip Morris. The study was carried for the Institute by the Beacon Hill Institute which was the research arm of the Department of Economics at Suffolk University in Boston but since 2016 is a free-standing entity.
Washington Policy Centre
The Washington Policy Center describes itself as an independent, non-profit think tank that promotes sound public policy based on free-market solutions.92 It has regularly opposed increases in tobacco taxation, as it does generally on taxation. In the case of tobacco it has argued that it leads to increase in smuggling.93 It has also argued against such rises because of the “impacts on the poor, nanny state controls, volatility of the revenue of a proposed tax, possible precedent on other businesses, and one-size fits all unnecessary mandates, to name a few”.11 The Center doesn’t reveal its donors who contribute to its $3.5m annual budget but it is known that Altria has provided funding since 2011 and as recently as 2018.12

Latin American Think Tanks

Centro de Divulgacion del Conocimiento Economico Para la Libertad
CEDICE is a libertarian think thank located in Venezuela. They promote free-market and democratic freedom. Among their allies are organizations as the Fraser Institute, Cato Institute, who are knowingly working with the tobacco industry. Funded by the Atlas Network. 94They were one of the organizations that signed the letter to WHO against promoting plain packaging in 2016 and again in 2018.95
Contribuyentes por Respeto
Contribuyentes por Respeto is a Peruvian free-market think tank focused on promoting public-private partnerships and libertarian values.96 This think tank has made public appearances defending e-cigarettes as a healthier alternative since 2012 and warned about the possible economic effects of a complete ban of advertising. It provided written arguments against the tobacco control act in Peru.97It opposed the tobacco control act in Peru, co-signed two anti-plain packaging letters to the WHO, and lobbied for looser regulation of e-cigarettes.98
Fundación Atlas 1853
Libertarian think tank focused on free-market principles99 which co-signed letters to the WHO against promoting plain packaging in 2016 and in 2018. It has received funding from the Atlas Network.100
Fundación Eléutera
Fundación Eléutera publicly oppose plain packaging on their website and co-signed letters to the WHO against promoting plain packaging in 2016 and again in 2018.101It mirrored tobacco industry in arguing, for example, for the need to protect free markets, intellectual property and brands. It has received funding from the Atlas Network.102
Fundación Libertad
A libertarian think tank created more than 30 years ago, promoting free-market values, democracy and private property in Argentina. Among their members they have mining companies, pharmaceutical companies, banks, but subsidiaries from tobacco companies are not listed.103 It is funded by the Atlas Network and has strong links with the government, especially with current president Mauricio Macri. It was one of the organizations that signed the letter to the WHO against promoting plain packaging in 2018.104
Fundación para el Progreso
This Chilean think-tank promotes free-market, limited government intervention, private property, freedom and individualism values. It has articles criticising the sugar-tax and tobacco control taxes in Chile. it is part of the Atlas Network and has been receiving funding from them. 105 It does not disclose where else it receives funding. This organisation signed the open letter to the World Health Organization against plain packaging in 2018.106
Libertad y Desarrollo
Founded in Chile in 1990, this think-tank seeks to promote free-market, freedom, individualism and private property rights in Chile. It has received funding from The Tinker Foundation, Atlas Economic Research Foundation, Center for International Private Enterprise and Fundación Hans Seidel.107 Carlos Caceres, one of the founders of Libertad and Desarrollo and former minister of finance during Pinochet’s military dictatorship , became President of British American Tobacco Chile in 2014. 108 British American Tobacco confirmed that it provided funding to the think tank in 2013.109 Chilean news outlets have reported that BAT has provided funding to Libertad and Desarrollo, to lobby against the tobacco control law that came out in 2014.110
Libertad y Progreso
This Argentinean think-tank promotes market freedom and a reduced role for the State. Libertad y Progeso does not disclose the origins of its funding, arguing that “our funds come only from individual contributions of individuals, foundations and companies committed to the future of the country”.111 Libertad y Progreso co-signed an open letter to the World Health Organization in 2018 in opposition to plain packaging.112 It is internationally connected, and its allies include the Atlas Network, the Fraser Institute and the Cato Institute.

European Country Think Tanks

Centre for Policy Studies
The Centre for Policy Studies is a UK-based libertarian think tank that has been promoting free-market values since 1974. The tobacco industry documents show historical evidence of this organisation receiving funding from British American Tobacco.
Institute of Economic Affairs
One of the UK’s leading neo-liberal think tanks, with a history of taking money off the tobacco industry and taking tobacco industry positions on issues such as plain packaging. It has been listed as one of Philip Morris International’s “media messengers”. It is opaque on its funding, but has received money from British American Tobacco, Imperial Tobacco, Philip Morris International and Japan Tobacco International.
International Center for Policy Studies (ICPS)
ICPS is a Ukrainian think tank, working on foreign policy, gender equality, socio-economic issues, among others. 113It has received funding from PMI from 2014-2016, for gender projects with young girls in Ukraine. 114 Both ICPS co-founder Serhiy Kischenko and some of his colleagues criticised progressive bill No. 2820 “On Amendments to Certain Laws of Ukraine on the Protection of the Public Health from Tobacco Harm”. 115
Manifesto Club
The Manifesto Club is a small, free-market lobby group which campaigns, among other issues, against tobacco control policies. It is linked to various other libertarian outlets and has teamed up with the pro-smoking group Forest in the past.
Ukrainian Economic Freedoms Foundation
Based in Kiev, the Ukrainian Economic Freedoms Foundation says that is lobbies for reduced taxes and minimal government regulation. It is part of the Atlas Network of liberarian think thanks. Its founder, Jed Sunden, is an American businessman who sits on the supervisory board of the Network.116. The Foundation signed letters to the WHO in 2016117 and 201826 to lobby against plain packaging legislation. The Foundation provides no information on its donors it is known that Philip Morris International donated $150,000 in 2017.118
Warsaw Enterprise Institute
The Warsaw Enterprise Institute is a member of the Atlas Network of libertarian think thanks and is connected with a range of former Eastern Bloc policy organisations. It signed a letter to the WHO in 2018 lobbying against plain packaging legislation.26 It is known that Philip Morris International gave the Institute $25,000 in 2017118 and $30,000 in 2018.119. In October 2018 it opened a Freedom Lounge in the former headquarters of the Communist Party in the centre of Warsaw. The Institute said it was “created with conservative and free-market youth in mind” and among the partners was Philip Morris.120

Asia, Middle East, Africa and Pacific Think Tanks

Asia and Middle East Africa Pacific
Center for Indonesian Policy Studies
The Centre for Indonesian Policy Studies is a think-tank based in Jakarta and a member of Atlas Network. It promotes free-market values and has prepared publications promoting tax-reductions and looser regulations, including in tobacco control. It was one of the organisations that opposed plain packaging in the letter to WHO in 2018.26 The Center argues its opposition to plain packaging is based on respecting intellectual property rights. 121
Egyptian Center for Public Policy Studies
This Egyptian free-market think tank, formerly known as the Egyptian Union of Liberal Youth (EULY), was founded in 2007. It opposed plain packaging in a 2016 letter to the WHO it co-signed.117122, basing their opposition on intellectual property rights arguments and the need of economic freedom 123
Institute of Public Affairs
The Institute of Public Affairs is an Australian think tank, created in 1943. It promotes free-market and limited government values, through research publications and op-eds.124. This think-tank has a history of opposing tobacco control policies such as plain packaging, tobacco taxes, among others. 125. The IPA has received funding from British American Tobacco and Philip Morris International and the evidence suggests that these relationships with the tobacco industry have been happening since early 2000. 126
INDEF (Institute for Development of Economics and Finance)
The Institute for Development of Economics and Finance (INDEF) is an Indonesian free-market think tank founded in 1995. In 2018, INDEF organised several events on how to protect the tobacco industry from tobacco control regulation in Indonesia, after new tobacco control measures were introduced in the country.127
Free Market Foundation
Founded in 1975, the Free Market Foundation is a libertarian think tank which has a long history of working on behalf of the tobacco industry. In recent years, it has defended tobacco marketing and opposed tobacco control policies in South Africa 128. It is a partner of the Atlas Network, and British American Tobacco South Africa has been a “senior corporate member” since 2000. Philip Morris International (PMI) was also listed on the think tank’s website as a senior corporate member in 2013. Shortly after, information about members was removed from the Free Market Foundation‘s website and it no longer makes its donors’ details public. It was one of the organisations that signed the letter to WHO both in 2016 and 2018, opposing plain packaging.11726
Institute for Democracy and Economic Affairs
Based in Kuala Lumpur, the Institute for Democracy and Economic Affairs (IDEAS) aims to improve public polices based on limited governments and free market values. It has acknowledged previously receiving tobacco industry funding from Philip Morris International and Japan Tobacco International.129130 The Guardian also reported that IDEAS received tobacco industry funding between 2015 and 2017.131 IDEAS has lobbied against tobacco control policies in Malaysia and at a global level, and co-signed letters to WHO opposing plain packaging in 2016 an 2018.11726 In 2019, IDEAS published an open letter stating that it would no longer receive funding from the tobacco industry.132 
Imani Center for Policy and Education
The Imani Centre for Policy and Education is a Ghanaian libertarian think-tank, founded in 2004. It has publicly opposed tobacco taxes in Ghana and plain packaging at a global level.133. Moreover, this organisation has challenged the link between tobacco use and lung cancer. The Guardian reports that the Centre declared that it had received tobacco industry funding in 2015. 134
Policy Research Institute of Market Economy (PRIME)
PRIME is a think tank based in Islamabad, Pakistan. Founded in 2013 with a libertarian outlook it promotes a limited government approach PRIME is a member of the Atlas Network 135. PRIME has opposed plain packaging at a global level and signed the WHO open letter against plain packaging in 2016 and 2018.11726

Tobacco Tactics Resources

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