Guide to Referencing

From TobaccoTactics
Revision as of 14:20, 12 March 2017 by Editor5 (talk | contribs)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
Jump to navigationJump to search

This page explains to authors of content on TobaccoTactics, how to accurately reference their material in Wikimedia.

Step 1

What Does a Reference Contain?

Always use this format:

Author(s), Title, Publication, date, accessed date

If no author is mentioned, put the person or organisation - most - responsible for the publication: authority or radio/tv program, or publisher, so

Dispatches, Smoking is bad for you, Channel 4, date, accessed date

Where the source you are referencing is available online, make the title of the article or web page into a weblink. This is done by opening a set of square brackets, then pasting in the url of the article or web page, then leaving a space, then typing the title of the article or web page, then closing square brackets. Then add the rest of the publication information.

Author(s), [URL space Title], Publication, date, accessed date

All references must be enclosed within the reference coding:

<ref> ... </ref>

If you are concerned about the longevity of the URL please capture the URL using the WebCitation Archive.

Insert your reference into the body text at a point that makes the source of your information clear to the reader. This may be after you quote or paraphrase from the article or web page to be referenced.

Add the reference at the appropriate point in the text. The appropriate point is in the body of the text you are writing,

and without a space behind the last word, before the comma or collon, but when at the end of a sentence after the full stop, also without space.

When positioning the reference, consider: "Is it clear what information this reference is a source for?" If it's for a quote, then place it at the end of the quote. If it's for a bulk of text that has been paraphrased from a source, then it would be helpful to make reference to the source and add it there. For example:

Paul Hutcheon, writing in the ''Sunday Herald''<ref> P. Hutcheon,[ Sleaze probe into nuclear lobbying at Holyrood], ''Sunday Herald'', 22 January 2006, accessed 12 November 2008</ref>, reports that...

When saved, it will look like this:

Paul Hutcheon, writing in the Sunday Herald[1], reports that...

with the details of the reference appearing at the foot of the page in the Notes section, provided you went through Step 2.

Step 2

Check the bottom of the page to make sure there is a Reference section.

If not, you will need to create a new section for the references to appear. This is done by adding Notes (enclosed in two sets of == to make the sub-heading). Then add <references/>. The Notes coding goes just above the Categories coding.

So, in the edit box, the bottom of your page should look like this:

[[Category:Category name here]][[Category:Another category name]]

Repeating References

If you go on to refer to the source again (for example, in the next paragraph) add something along the lines of 'The report continues by stating...' This makes it clear that you are still representing Hutcheon's views, and not necessarily your own.

There are no hard and fast rules for how to do this. It will depend upon your preferred style. But once you've written your piece, give a moment's thought to readers who have no knowledge of where the information has come from and ensure that it is clear.

If you use the same reference further down the text, and there is no easy way to explain in the text that you are using the same source again, you might want to repeat the reference.

Instead of simply duplicating the <ref> same ref <ref/> on each occasion, you can use the following code.

The first time you use a reference, instead of <ref>

<ref name="..."> full usual reference </ref>

or replace the quotation marks with spaces: <ref name = ...> full usual reference </ref>

For instance

<ref name="Michaels">P. J. Michaels, [ Global-Warming Myth], ''Cato Institute'', accessed October 2012</ref>
will show up like this [2]

Then in each subsequent location where you want to use the same citation you simply add the

  • <ref name="Michaels"/> , also showing up like this: [2]

or the spaces variation:

  • <ref name = Michaels/> , as [2]

(don't mix the two variations though!)

This will then display only one full reference, but with the markers as 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, etc.

as can be seen below.


  1. P. Hutcheon, Sleaze probe into nuclear lobbying at Holyrood, Sunday Herald, 22 January 2006, accessed 12 November 2008
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 P. J. Michaels, Global-Warming Myth, Cato Institute, accessed October 2012