E-cigarettes: The Basics
This page gives a basic summary of what e-cigarettes are, how they work, and what they contain. It does not attempt to describe or assess their safety.
What Are E-Cigarettes?
E-cigarettes, also known as electronic cigarettes or Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), work by vaporising nicotine liquid. They consist of a battery, a cartridge (disposable, replaceable or refillable) with liquids (called ‘e-liquids’) and a heating mechanism. This heats the cartridge ingredients to create a vapour that is inhaled by the consumer (the ‘vaper’). They do not contain tobacco and there is no combustion, or smoke, but some produce ‘clouds’ of vapour. Odour is produced by flavours which are added to the liquid. E-cigarettes are used like cigarettes: when the user draws on an e-cigarette, visible vapour is produced. With some ‘cig-alikes’ (see below) an LED light mimics the glow of a real cigarette.
What Different Types Are There?
Many e-cigarettes are manufactured to look like conventional cigarettes, cigars, or pipes, but some resemble everyday items, such as pens and USB memory sticks. Some models are disposable, some are designed to be refilled with cartridges (or ‘pods’) and some are also rechargeable, for instance via USB. Vapourisers and ‘tank systems’ tend to be bigger, including ‘mods’ (from ‘modification’) which allow the user to assemble or customise their device, for example by changing size or battery power.
Detailed descriptions of different types of e-cigarette can be found on Wikipedia: Electronic cigarette
What Are ‘Vapes’?
Terminology has changed since the first e-cigarettes were produced. Companies now generally refer to all their e-cigarettes as ‘vapes’, short for ‘vapouriser’ ( ‘vaporizer’ in the US), to distinguish them from conventional cigarettes. On their company websites in 2019, British American Tobacco (BAT) and Imperial Tobacco referred to their e-cigarettes as ‘vapour products’; Philip Morris International (PMI) used the term ‘e-vapor’; and only Japan Tobacco International (JTI) referred to their current products as ‘e-cigarettes’.
What Is In E-liquids?
The liquids used in most e-cigarettes are usually sold in a bottle or in pre-filled disposable cartridges, and may include nicotine, as well as variable combinations and quantities of water, glycerol, propylene glycol, flavourings and other ingredients.
A huge number of flavours are available, from tobacco and menthol flavours, to those resembling sweets, like bubble gum, or cherry or strawberry. The latter are prohibited for use in regular cigarettes because of concerns that such flavours appeal to children.
How Much Nicotine ?
E-liquids are sold in different nicotine concentrations. In some countries the level of nicotine in e-cigarettes is restricted. In the European Union the maximum concentration allowed is 20mg/ml (20%). In the US, as of 2019, there is no maximum level set by law, and some e-cigarettes (including JUUL LabsJuul) contain much higher levels, up to three times that amount. In other countries, including Australia, it is illegal to sell products containing nicotine without a licence, and therefore e-liquids containing nicotine are not openly available without a prescription.
It is also possible to buy flavoured liquids for e-cigarettes without nicotine (labelled 0% nicotine). Some tobacco companies sell these liquids, although the majority of their products contain nicotine.
Nicotine can be extracted from tobacco leaf in different ways for use in e-liquids. The most common ‘freebase’ method enables nicotine to pass through membranes in the body more easily, but can be harsh on the throat when inhaling higher concentrations. A more recent innovation is ‘nicotine salts’ which are created when ‘freebase’ nicotine is dissolved in acid. This can make a higher dose of nicotine more palatable and so allow higher doses of more concentrated nicotine to be consumed. Juul e-cigarettes use nicotine salts, and three of the transnational tobacco companies (BAT, JTI and Imperial) also sell nicotine salt products, with PMI’s apparently in the development stage.
- The list of all pages on e-cigarettes.
- World Health Organization (WHO):Tobacco - Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS)
- Global Center for Good Governance in Tobacco Control (GGTC): ENDS
- European Commission (EC):Electronic Cigarettes
- United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA):Vaporizers, E-Cigarettes, and other Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS)
- British American Tobacco, Vapour Products, BAT website, undated, accessed October 2019
- Imperial Brands, Next Generation Products, website, undated, accessed October 2019
- Philip Morris International, Frequently Asked Questions: What are reduced-risk products, PMI website, undated, accessed May 2019
- Japan Tobacco International, Our reduced-risk products – our vaping products, JTI website, undated, accessed October 2019
- Trump says FDA will ban flavoured e-cigarettes to combat teen vaping, The Guardian, 11 September 2019, accessed November 2019
- J. Wingrove, G. Porter Jr, M. Cortez, Trump Considers Retreat From Ban of Mint, Menthol Vaping Flavors, Bloomberg, 25 October 2019, accessed November 2019
- J. Hellmann, FDA working ‘as quickly as possible on e-cigarette flavour ban, The Hill, 25 October 2019, accessed November 2019
- M. Nedelman, New bill aims to cap nicotine levels in e-cigarettes, CNN, 7 October 2019, accessed October 2019
- Centre for Media and Democracy,Freebase Nicotine, Sourcewatch, 27 September 2017, accessed July 2019