Difference between revisions of "E-cigarettes"

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===Imperial Tobacco===
 
===Imperial Tobacco===
[[Imperial Tobacco]]'s subsidiary [[Fontem Ventures]] acquired Dragonite in August 2013, previously owned by Hon Lik, the Chinese pharmacist who claims to have invented the e-cigarette.  In July 2014, as part of [[RJ Reynolds| Reynolds’s]] acquisition of [[E-Cigarettes: Lorillard|Lorillard]], Imperial bought blu.<ref name=merced/> In February 2015, Imperial launched its own e-cigarette ‘Jai’ in Europe.<ref>M. Geller, [https://uk.reuters.com/article/imperial-tobacco-ecigarette/imperial-tobacco-widens-e-cigarette-strategy-with-new-brand-idUKL6N0VE5JD20150204 Imperial Tobacco widens e-cigarette strategy with new brand], ''Reuters'', 4 February 2015, accessed October 2019</ref>  However blu became Imperial’s flagship brand.
+
[[E-Cigarettes: Imperial Tobacco|Imperial Tobacco]]'s subsidiary [[Fontem Ventures]] acquired Dragonite in August 2013, previously owned by Hon Lik, the Chinese pharmacist who claims to have invented the e-cigarette.  In July 2014, as part of [[RJ Reynolds| Reynolds’s]] acquisition of [[E-Cigarettes: Lorillard|Lorillard]], Imperial bought blu.<ref name=merced/> In February 2015, Imperial launched its own e-cigarette ‘Jai’ in Europe.<ref>M. Geller, [https://uk.reuters.com/article/imperial-tobacco-ecigarette/imperial-tobacco-widens-e-cigarette-strategy-with-new-brand-idUKL6N0VE5JD20150204 Imperial Tobacco widens e-cigarette strategy with new brand], ''Reuters'', 4 February 2015, accessed October 2019</ref>  However blu became Imperial’s flagship brand.
* For more on Imperial’s e-cigarettes see [[Fontem Ventures]].
+
* For more on Imperial’s e-cigarettes and tactics see [[E-Cigarettes: Imperial Tobacco]].
  
 
===Japan Tobacco International===
 
===Japan Tobacco International===
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==Patent Claims==
 
==Patent Claims==
In March 2014, Imperial Tobacco’s [[Fontem Ventures]] launched legal proceedings over patents in California against nine of its US rivals including the top three [[E-Cigarettes: Lorillard| Lorillard]]'s Blu Ecigs, NJOY and Logic, and BAT’s [[Nicoventures]]. According to the ''Financial Times'' the lawsuit showed that "big tobacco" was becoming increasingly aggressive in the battle for the fast-growing e-cigarette market: "patents are expected to play an increasingly crucial role as big tobacco companies vie with smaller rivals to gain market share."<ref>D. Robinson, S. Bond, [https://www.ft.com/content/0d5e20ec-a877-11e3-a946-00144feab7de Imperial fires up e-cigarette legal battle], ''Financial Times'', 10 March 2014, accessed October 2019 (behind paywall) </ref><ref> Schumpeter, [https://www.economist.com/schumpeter/2014/03/17/a-case-of-the-vapers A case of the vapers], ''The Economist'', 17 March 2014, accessed October 2019</ref>
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In March 2014, Imperial Tobacco’s [[E-Cigarettes: Imperial Tobacco|Fontem Ventures]] launched legal proceedings over patents in California against nine of its US rivals including the top three [[E-Cigarettes: Lorillard| Lorillard]]'s Blu Ecigs, NJOY and Logic, and BAT’s [[Nicoventures]]. According to the ''Financial Times'' the lawsuit showed that "big tobacco" was becoming increasingly aggressive in the battle for the fast-growing e-cigarette market: "patents are expected to play an increasingly crucial role as big tobacco companies vie with smaller rivals to gain market share."<ref>D. Robinson, S. Bond, [https://www.ft.com/content/0d5e20ec-a877-11e3-a946-00144feab7de Imperial fires up e-cigarette legal battle], ''Financial Times'', 10 March 2014, accessed October 2019 (behind paywall) </ref><ref> Schumpeter, [https://www.economist.com/schumpeter/2014/03/17/a-case-of-the-vapers A case of the vapers], ''The Economist'', 17 March 2014, accessed October 2019</ref>
  
 
Fontem Ventures also instigated lawsuits against [[E-Cigarettes: Altria|Altria]] subsidiary Nu Mark, and [[RJ Reynolds]] (BAT). Most of these cases had been settled out of court by 2017.<ref>S. Rosselat, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.vapingpost.com/2016/04/05/fontem-ventures-gives-a-patent-battle-to-the-vape-industry/ Fontem Ventures gives a patent battle to the vape industry], Vaping Post blog, 5 April 2016, accessed October 2019</ref><ref> M. Bultman, [https://web.archive.org/web/20191028124948/http://www.tobaccotoday.info/2017/01/12/fontem-nu-mark-end-e-cig-patent-fight-with-settlement/ Fontem, Nu Mark End E-Cig Patent Fight With Settlement], ''TobaccoToday'', 12 January 2017, accessed October 2019</ref><ref> [https://www.tobaccoasia.com/product-news/big-tobacco-reaches-settlement/ Big Tobacco Reaches Settlement], ''Tobacco Asia'', 14 March 2017, accessed October 2019</ref><ref> [https://news.bloomberglaw.com/ip-law/imperials-fontem-reynolds-settle-vaping-patent-fights-1 Imperial’s Fontem, Reynolds Settle Vaping-Patent Fights], ''Bloomberg Law'', 2 October 2018, accessed October 2019</ref>
 
Fontem Ventures also instigated lawsuits against [[E-Cigarettes: Altria|Altria]] subsidiary Nu Mark, and [[RJ Reynolds]] (BAT). Most of these cases had been settled out of court by 2017.<ref>S. Rosselat, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.vapingpost.com/2016/04/05/fontem-ventures-gives-a-patent-battle-to-the-vape-industry/ Fontem Ventures gives a patent battle to the vape industry], Vaping Post blog, 5 April 2016, accessed October 2019</ref><ref> M. Bultman, [https://web.archive.org/web/20191028124948/http://www.tobaccotoday.info/2017/01/12/fontem-nu-mark-end-e-cig-patent-fight-with-settlement/ Fontem, Nu Mark End E-Cig Patent Fight With Settlement], ''TobaccoToday'', 12 January 2017, accessed October 2019</ref><ref> [https://www.tobaccoasia.com/product-news/big-tobacco-reaches-settlement/ Big Tobacco Reaches Settlement], ''Tobacco Asia'', 14 March 2017, accessed October 2019</ref><ref> [https://news.bloomberglaw.com/ip-law/imperials-fontem-reynolds-settle-vaping-patent-fights-1 Imperial’s Fontem, Reynolds Settle Vaping-Patent Fights], ''Bloomberg Law'', 2 October 2018, accessed October 2019</ref>
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* [[E-Cigarettes: British American Tobacco]]
 
* [[E-Cigarettes: British American Tobacco]]
 
* [[E-Cigarettes: Lorillard]]
 
* [[E-Cigarettes: Lorillard]]
* [[Fontem Ventures]]
+
* [[E-Cigarettes: Imperial Tobacco]]
 
* [[E-Cigarettes: Japan Tobacco International]]
 
* [[E-Cigarettes: Japan Tobacco International]]
 
* [[E-Cigarettes: Philip Morris International]]
 
* [[E-Cigarettes: Philip Morris International]]

Latest revision as of 18:08, 7 November 2019

To secure the tobacco industry’s medium to long-term future, in light of growing tobacco regulations and a rapidly shrinking cigarette market, tobacco companies have been looking to develop and market so-called ‘Next Generation Products’ (NGPs), which include snus, e-cigarettes, and Heated Tobacco Products (HTPs).[1][2]

This page gives an overview of tobacco companies’ interests in e-cigarettes, also known as electronic cigarettes or ENDS (Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems), which have been acquired, developed and sold by tobacco companies since 2012. This page links to further pages giving more detailed information about each company’s products, market share and business strategy, including methods used to promote their products around the world. This page also points to examples of lobbying activity conducted by, and on behalf of, tobacco companies, in order to influence regulation around e-cigarettes.

Research updates on, and analysis of, the potential health benefits/risks of e-cigarettes are outside the scope of Tobacco Tactics, as are products produced by independent companies without tobacco industry links.

Image 1: Vuse E-Cigarettes on sale in the US in 2019 (Image source: Vuse Vapor website[3])

Tobacco Companies Enter the E-Cigarette Market

Tobacco companies began buying existing e-cigarette brands, and developing their own e-cigarette products from 2012. At the time, the global e-cigarette market was highly fragmented and dominated by independent e-cigarette companies, with the Financial Times estimating in June 2013 that the market was worth $3 billion.[4]

Tobacco companies were well placed to take advantage of this fast growing market, as they had established distribution points and the resources to cover the costs of marketing. They were also in a position to meet the financial and legal demands that would likely come with any future regulation of e-cigarettes.[4]

In 2012 and 2013 there was a flurry of tobacco company investment in e-cigarettes, both in the United Kingdom (UK) and in the United States (US), a trend which continued in subsequent years.

By 2018, British American Tobacco (BAT), Imperial Tobacco, Japan Tobacco International (JTI), and to a lesser degree Philip Morris International (PMI), all had their own ‘flagship’ e-cigarette brands, and were expanding their global markets. In the same year, Altria bought a minority stake in US e-cigarette manufacturer JUUL Labs. Market research company Euromonitor International estimated that the e-cigarette market had grown from US$5 billion in 2013 to more than US$15 billion in 2018.[5]

British American Tobacco

British American Tobacco (BAT) launched ‘Vype’ in August 2013. This e-cigarette was originally developed by CN Creative, a start-up acquired by BAT in December 2012 and later merged into Nicoventures.[6][7] After forming a ‘strategic partnership’ with US tobacco company Reynolds American Inc (RAI) in 2014, BAT acquired the whole company and its ‘Vuse’ range of e-cigarettes in 2017. For more information, see RJ Reynolds. BAT went on to acquire more independent e-cigarette companies, and developed a range of products under the Vype and Vuse brands. As of mid-2019, BAT planned to consolidate the two brands as Vuse.[8][9]

Lorillard

Lorillard was the third largest cigarette manufacturer in the US at the time it acquired the e-cigarette company ‘blu ecigs’ in 2012.[10] In 2013, it entered the UK market by taking over ‘Skycig’, a leading independent brand, which was then rebranded as ‘blu ecigs’.[11][12] When Reynolds acquired Lorillard in 2014, blu was sold to Imperial Tobacco to avoid antitrust concerns (see below).[13][14]

Imperial Tobacco

Imperial Tobacco's subsidiary Fontem Ventures acquired Dragonite in August 2013, previously owned by Hon Lik, the Chinese pharmacist who claims to have invented the e-cigarette. In July 2014, as part of Reynolds’s acquisition of Lorillard, Imperial bought blu.[13] In February 2015, Imperial launched its own e-cigarette ‘Jai’ in Europe.[15] However blu became Imperial’s flagship brand.

Japan Tobacco International

Japan Tobacco International (JTI) bought UK e-cigarette brand E-lites in June 2014 from Zandera.[16][17][18] After acquiring US e-cigarette company ‘Logic’ in July 2015, E-Lites was rebranded as Logic, and this became JTI’s flagship brand.[19][20]

Philip Morris International

Philip Morris International (PMI) was the last of the international tobacco companies to enter the e-cigarette market. It announced in December 2013, that it was teaming up with Altria to market electronic cigarettes and other tobacco products it described as “reduced risk” .[21] PMI gained the right to exclusively sell Altria's e-cigarettes outside the United States. In 2014, PMI acquired UK company Nicocigs, the owner of the ‘Nicolites’ brand.[21][22] After rebranding ‘Nicolites’ as ‘Nicocig’, PMI went on to develop its own e-cigarette IQOS Mesh, which went on sale in the UK in 2018, alongside IQOS Heated Tobacco Products.[23][24][25] However, PMI’s interests in e-cigarettes are relatively minor compared to its interests in HTPs.

Altria

Altria launched ‘MarkTen’, produced by its subsidiary Nu Mark, in the US in 2014.[26][27][28] Altria acquired independent US e-cigarette company Green Smoke in 2014.[29][30] Both brands were discontinued in December 2018 and Altria announced that it had bought a 35% stake in market leader JUUL Labs.

Patent Claims

In March 2014, Imperial Tobacco’s Fontem Ventures launched legal proceedings over patents in California against nine of its US rivals including the top three Lorillard's Blu Ecigs, NJOY and Logic, and BAT’s Nicoventures. According to the Financial Times the lawsuit showed that "big tobacco" was becoming increasingly aggressive in the battle for the fast-growing e-cigarette market: "patents are expected to play an increasingly crucial role as big tobacco companies vie with smaller rivals to gain market share."[31][32]

Fontem Ventures also instigated lawsuits against Altria subsidiary Nu Mark, and RJ Reynolds (BAT). Most of these cases had been settled out of court by 2017.[33][34][35][36]

E-cigarette company JUUL Labs filed multiple complaints of patent infringement in the US courts, in October and November 2018, mainly against companies in China and Uruguay.[37][38] In December 2018, Altria acquired a 35% share in JUUL Labs, who subsequently dropped the infringement claims in April 2019.[39]

A Growing Market And Falling Shares

According to Euromonitor International, between 2014 and 2018 the value of the global e-cigarette market more than doubled from US$6.8 billion to over US$15.6 billion.[5][40]

The biggest markets by far remained the US (which grew from US$2.6 billion to US$6.8 billion ) and Western Europe (US$2.3 billion to US$5.2 billion ), with the UK the biggest single market in Europe. The value of the market in the Asia-Pacific region, while a quarter of the size of the US market, nearly doubled to US$1.4 billion. Growth was also rapid in some Eastern European countries, notably Hungary, the Czech Republic and Poland. Russia remained a sizeable market (although mainly for Chinese products). Markets in Latin America and Australasia, although significantly smaller, also doubled in value, while the market in the Middle East grew more slowly.

Market size is clearly affected by national rules and governing the sale of e-cigarette products. However, the existence of regulation restricting or banning the sale of e-cigarettes does not necessarily mean that tobacco company products are not available to purchase in a particular country (see for example BAT’s sales of Vype in Mexico).

In 2018, Euromonitor International put BAT’s share of the global e-cigarette market (by value) at 9.4% (in 2016, prior to its acquisition of RAI, it had been 3.4%). Imperial, JTI and PMI’s market share had all fallen since 2014 (see Table 1).[41] PMI’s overall share was the lowest (0.3%) in 2018 with IQOS Mesh yet to register.[42][43]

Company 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
BAT (including RAI from 2017) 1.6 2.9 3.4 11.0 9.4
RAI 9.6 6.3 6.5
Imperial Tobacco 0.3 4.7 3.9 3.7 3.2
JTI 4.1 3.3 2.8 3.1 2.8
E-Cigarettes: Altria 1.1 1.5 1.8 2.5 2.4
PMI 1.3 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.3
Independent companies 82.0 80.4 80.4 75.3 63.3
JUUL Labs 0.6 4.0 18.6

Table 1: Tobacco Company % Shares of the Global Market, by value, 2014-2018 (source Euromonitor International, 2019)[41]

Between 2015 and 2018 tobacco companies lost a significant slice of the market to JUUL Labs, whose global share rose from 4% to 18.6% (see Table 1).[41][42] In the US the rise of Juul was even more marked, with the company gaining share from both independent e-cigarette companies, and tobacco companies. Imperial and JTI both lost around half of their share between 2016 and 2018. Even after its acquisition of RAI in 2017, BAT’s share in the US fell by more than four percentage points in a year.[41][42]

Overall independent e-cigarette companies maintained the largest share of the global market, although this fell from over 80% in 2014 to just over 63% in 2018.[41][42]

Image 2: UK Singer Lily Allen paid by BAT to promote Vype on social media, triggering complaints to the UK Advertising Standards Authority (Image source: PR Week[44])

Marketing Strategies

Tobacco companies use a wide range of marketing tactics to promote their products, ranging from traditional media advertising, price promotions and point of sale displays. However, as e-cigarette advertising has become more restricted companies have been forced to become more creative. Pop-up stores and events, music festivals and collaborations with artists (see Image 2) and designers have all been used to help market e-cigarettes, with widespread online promotion via social media, paid celebrities and influencers.[44][45] This has led to the companies being criticised for targeting young people, rather than adult smokers looking to quit.[44][46][47][48]

The same criticism has been levelled at JUUL Labs. In September 2018, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) wrote to JUUL Labs, Fontem Ventures (Imperial), Altria, Reynolds American Inc. (RAI) and JTI, giving the companies 60 days to provide a written plan to “address the rate of youth use” of their products.[49]

Lobbying Regulators

Article 5.3 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), designed to protect public health policies from commercial and other vested interests, applies to the whole tobacco industry irrespective of the type of products they are attempting to sell. Tobacco companies are spending considerable amounts of time, effort and money lobbying decision-makers concerned with laws and regulations around e-cigarettes.[50]

As with lobbying on tobacco products, tactics include:

Can E-Cigarettes Help Advance Public Health?

Globally, there is an ongoing debate about whether e-cigarettes are a threat or an opportunity to public health. Some public health experts believe that e-cigarettes are an essential alternative to smoking tobacco that can help smokers quit. Others argue that e-cigarettes could be a route into nicotine addiction and point out that their long-term safety has not yet been proven. There are also those that believe that e-cigarettes may offer public health benefits but that e-cigarettes should be regulated, particularly when it comes to the marketing of such products.

While acknowledging that there are many unknowns about e-cigarettes and that these products are not harmless, many experts in tobacco control and public health will agree that vaping e-cigarettes is less harmful to the health of an individual smoker than smoking cigarettes. For e-cigarettes to have a positive impact on population-level health, a significant number of smokers need to switch completely to e-cigarettes (so not dual-using these products with cigarettes), and the product cannot act as a ‘gateway’ into nicotine addiction for youth and non-smokers, or undermine existing proven tobacco control measures. The difficulty is that a growing share of the global e-cigarette market these days is held by the tobacco industry, which has a history of using NGPs to stem the decline in cigarette sales and promote these products to any potential customer.[62][63]

What the Industry Says: It’s All About Harm Reduction

The tobacco industry has long argued that products like e-cigarettes should be made easily available to smokers, to offer them a ‘less harmful’ alternative to smoking.[64] In its 2018 Next Generation Products report, Imperial Tobacco wrote that particularly e-cigarettes (or ‘vapour products’ as they refer to it) were creating “…a huge global public health opportunity”.[65] BAT, somewhat misleadingly, claimed that there is ‘growing scientific consensus’ on the issue. In its 2018 Sustainability Report, the company stated:

“There is growing consensus among public health bodies and academics that vapour products [e-cigarettes] can have a significantly reduced risk profile compared to smoking. Public Health England in the UK estimates these products are ‘95% less harmful than smoking’2. Other third-party science and research supporting the significantly reduced-risk potential of vapour products continue to grow”.[66]

A study by researchers from the University of Bath’s Tobacco Control Research Group found that these products, and the associated harm reduction narrative, serve to “…‘renormalize’ an industry that is determined to be seen as a responsible business with a legitimate product…”.[64] The study also found that the products and narrative are used as tools to initiate dialogue with scientists, public health experts, politicians and policy makers, re-framing themselves as ‘part of the solution’ rather than being the problem.[64] Therefore, the tobacco industry is using e-cigarettes and other NGPs as a way to try and re-enter the policy arena from which it has increasingly, and successfully, been excluded in line with Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

What Industry Documents Show: It’s All About Profit

Despite positioning itself as ‘the solution to the tobacco problem’ it is worth noting that the core of the global tobacco industry’s business remains unchanged. E-cigarettes only form a tiny percentage of their work and will do so for the foreseeable future.[5] Tobacco company presentations to investors show that cigarettes remain central to the tobacco business, and the main driver for growth.[67][68][69] At its 2019 Annual General Meeting PMI’s CEO Andre Calantzopoulos said that, while stating that NGPs are increasingly complementing its cigarette business, the company was “committed to maintaining leadership of the cigarette category” and that it would be “focusing innovation on fewer, more impactful [cigarette] initiatives that can be deployed swiftly in any market”.[70] Similarly, BAT’s CEO Jack Bowles told investors in August 2019: “Our combustible business continues to drive the financial performance of the group and we are performing well”.[71]

Profits from e-cigarettes are seen as additional to tobacco companies’ core business, and not simply replacing revenue lost from falling sales of cigarettes.[72] In a July 2018 question and answer sessions, Imperial Tobacco CEO Alison Cooper talked about ‘vapour consumption’ and told her audience that “a lot of the time it’s actually also adding to the nicotine consumption in the market. it’s not a question of shifting to NGP, then that comes straight out of the combustible tobacco consumption because we are seeing nicotine market growth in the UK, for example”.[73]

Similarly, in October 2018, BAT reported that the nicotine consumer pool had started growing in 2013 - when the tobacco industry had started investing in e-cigarettes.[74] In March 2019, the company stated that the growth in its ‘vapour’ product category was being driven by new consumers of nicotine products, rather than from people switching, with the opposite being true for their Heated Tobacco Products.[75]

See also: E-Cigarettes: British American Tobacco.

WHO Urges Caution

In March 2019, the Secretariat of the WHO FCTC issued an Information Note which compiled all Conference of the Parties (COP) decisions related to e-cigarettes.

A few months later, the Secretariat released a statement urging governments to remain vigilant, stating that:

“novel and emerging nicotine and tobacco products…are creating another layer of interference by the tobacco industry and related industries, which is still reported by Parties as the most serious barrier to progress in implementing the WHO FCTC”.[76]

It also reminded Parties of their obligations under Article 5.3 to protect tobacco control policies and activities from all commercial and vested interests.[76]

TobaccoTactics Resources

Relevant Links

Notes

  1. Euromonitor International. Global Tobacco: Key Findings Part I- Cigarettes, 22 August 2017
  2. G. Salmon, British American Tobacco – Drawn to the glo, Hargreaves Lansdown, 27 July 2017, accessed September 2017
  3. Vuse Vapor website, undated, accessed October 2019
  4. 4.0 4.1 S. Bond, Big Tobacco bets a packet on e-cigarettes, Financial Times, 6 June 2013, accessed October 2019
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Euromonitor International, World Market for Cigarettes, Briefing 16 October 2019 (behind paywall)
  6. British American Tobacco, British American Tobacco buys UK based e-cigarette technology company, BAT Press Release, 19 December 2012, accessed June 2019
  7. CN Creative sold to British American Tobacco, Manchester Evening News, 19 December 2012, accessed June 2019
  8. British American Tobacco, Half-year Report for the six months to June 2019, 1 August 2019, accessed August 2019
  9. British American Tobacco, Half-year Report for the six months to June 2019: Presentation Transcript, 1 August 2019, accessed August 2019
  10. blu ecigs the leading electronic cigarette company acquired by Lorillard, Cision PR Newswire, 25 April 2012, accessed October 2019
  11. Lorillard, Inc. Acquires British-based SKYCIG, Expanding its Electronic Cigarette Business, Cision PR Newswire, 1 October 2013, accessed October 2019
  12. Skycig electronic cigarettes to become Blu ecigs, Convenience Store News, 21 March 2014, accessed October 2019
  13. 13.0 13.1 M.J. De la Merced, C. Bray, To Compete With Altria, Reynolds American Is Buying Lorillard, The New York Times (behind paywall), 15 July 2014, accessed October 2019
  14. Imperial Tobacco snaps up US brands Salem and Kool in £4bn deal, The Guardian, 15 July 2014, accessed October 2019
  15. M. Geller, Imperial Tobacco widens e-cigarette strategy with new brand, Reuters, 4 February 2015, accessed October 2019
  16. Japan Tobacco International, JTI acquires leading e-cigarette brand E-Lites, JTI press release, undated, accessed September 2019
  17. D. Robinson, Japan Tobacco joins rivals in e-cigarette market with E-lites buy. Financial Times (behind paywall), 11 June 2014
  18. Japan Tobacco Inc., Annual Report FY2014, accessed September 2019
  19. Japan Tobacco Inc., JT acquires Logic, the leading independent US e-cigarette company, JT press release, 30 April 2015, accessed September 2019
  20. Japan Tobacco Inc., Annual Report FY2016, accessed September 2019
  21. 21.0 21.1 Philip Morris International, Philip Morris International Inc. (“PMI”) Hosts Investor Day: E-Vapour Acquisition, PMI Press Release, 26 June 2014, accessed July 2019
  22. Philip Morris International, Taking E-Cigarettes Further: E-Vapour Products, PMI website, undated, accessed May 2019
  23. Philip Morris International, PMI annual report 2018, 8 March 2019, accessed May 2019
  24. Euromonitor, Philip Morris International Inc: Global Company Profile, 14 August 2018
  25. Philip Morris International, Stores, IQOS website, undated, accessed May 2019
  26. Marlboro Maker Altria is Jumping Into E-Cigarettes, CNBC News, 11 June 2013, accessed January 2019
  27. N. Modi, US Tobacco 2014 Playbook, RBC Capital Markets, 12 December 2013 (behind paywall)
  28. M. Felberbaum, Marlboro maker Altria Group to expand MarkTen electronic cigarette nationally in 2nd quarter, The Associated Press, CanadaBusiness.com, 19 February 2014, accessed January 2019
  29. Altria, Altria Group Inc. 2014 Annual Report
  30. Altria Group, Altria Announces Agreement to Acquire E-Vapor Business of Green Smoke Inc., BusinessWire, 3 February 2014, accessed January 2019
  31. D. Robinson, S. Bond, Imperial fires up e-cigarette legal battle, Financial Times, 10 March 2014, accessed October 2019 (behind paywall)
  32. Schumpeter, A case of the vapers, The Economist, 17 March 2014, accessed October 2019
  33. S. Rosselat, Fontem Ventures gives a patent battle to the vape industry, Vaping Post blog, 5 April 2016, accessed October 2019
  34. M. Bultman, Fontem, Nu Mark End E-Cig Patent Fight With Settlement, TobaccoToday, 12 January 2017, accessed October 2019
  35. Big Tobacco Reaches Settlement, Tobacco Asia, 14 March 2017, accessed October 2019
  36. Imperial’s Fontem, Reynolds Settle Vaping-Patent Fights, Bloomberg Law, 2 October 2018, accessed October 2019
  37. M. Geller, E-cigarette maker Juul files complaints against “copycat products”, Reuters, 4 October 2018, accessed October 2019
  38. C. Yasiejko, Juul Lobs Second Round of Suits Against E-Cigarette Rivals, Bloomberg, 20 November 2018, accessed October 2019
  39. Juul Labs Drops Patent Infringement Case Against Competitors, Bloomberg Law, 18 April 2019, accessed October 2019
  40. Euromonitor International: UK e-cigarette market value, 2014-2018, accessed September 2019
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 41.3 41.4 Euromonitor International, Vapour Products: World, accessed September 2019
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 42.3 Euromonitor International: UK e-cigarette market share by retail value, 2014-2018, accessed September 2019
  43. Euromonitor, Philip Morris International Inc: Global Company Profile, 14 August 2018
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 A. Hickman, S. Delahunty, Big Tobacco confirm ‘earned media’ tactics as ad authorities investigate , PR Week, 30 April, 2019, accessed October 2019
  45. M. Nedelman, R. Selig, A. Azad, #Juul: How social media hyped nicotine for a new generation, CNN, 19 December 2018, accessed October 2019
  46. Action on Smoking and Health, BAT under investigation by the ASA for promoting e-cigs to young people on social media, ASH blog, 29 April 2019, accessed August 2019
  47. J. Hoek, B. Freeman, BAT(NZ) draws on cigarette marketing tactics to launch Vype in New Zealand, Tobacco Control: Industry Watch, 17 July 2019
  48. M. Wilson, This vape company invented a whole new kind of dark pattern, Fast Company, 20 March 2019, accessed October 2019
  49. Food and Drug Administration, Letters to Manufacturers Regarding Plans to Address Youth Access and Use, FDA website, 12 September 2018, accessed October 2019
  50. S. Peeters, A. Gilmore, Transnational tobacco company interests in smokeless tobacco in Europe: Analysis of internal industry documents and contemporary industry materials, PLoS Medicine, 2013,10(9):1001506
  51. L. Wells, British American Tobacco tackles youth vaping, Talking Retail, 26 February 2019, accessed March 2019
  52. P. Hutcheon, Lobbying register reveals which multi-national giants have been meeting MSPs, Herald on Sunday, 3 June 2018, accessed October 2019
  53. British American Tobacco, Submission by British American Tobacco Australia in respect of the Select Committee on Personal Choice and Community Safety - Legislative Council of Western Australia, October 2018, accessed September 2019
  54. J. Smyth, Tobacco groups seek to overturn Australia’s vaping ban, Financial Times 1 April 2019, accessed September 2019
  55. Japan Tobacco International, Submission to the Consultation on the Review of Tobacco Control Legislation in Australia, 15 March 2019, accessed September 2019
  56. Z. Small, ‘I’m confused’: MPs question tobacco firm Imperial Brands’ anti-smoking motivation, Newshub.co.nz, 28 August 2019, accessed October 2019
  57. Dodds Events (@DodsEvents), Tweet: “At #SNP Conference…Join us in Meeting Room 3 to discuss Where Next for Vaping in Scotland”?, Twitter, 15 October 2019 12:35
  58. US Government, Lobbying Report, RAI Lobbying Disclosure, 22 July 2019, accessed September 2019
  59. S. Knapton, MPs behind controversial e-cigarette report criticised vaping lobby, The Telegraph, 17 August 2018, accessed March 2019
  60. C. Weeks, E-cigarette companies join forces to lobby against proposed vaping regulations, The Globe and Mail, 14 October 2019, accessed October 2019
  61. K. Jennings, Big Tobacco’s push for Big Vape, Politico, 26 February 2019, accessed April 2019
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