Nicotine Pouches

This page was last edited on at

As the harms from conventional products have become better understood, and tobacco control measures have been put in place, the cigarette market – from which tobacco companies make most of their profits – has started to shrink. To secure the industry’s longer-term future, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have invested in, developed and marketed various newer nicotine and tobacco products, including in low and middle-income countries (LMICs).1

Since the early 2000s TTCs have developed interests in e-cigarettes (also known as electronic delivery systems, or ENDS), heated tobacco products (HTPs), snus and nicotine pouches. Companies have referred to these types of product as ‘next generation products’ (NGPs) although terminology changes over time.

All of the ‘big four’ TTCs (PMI, BAT, JTI, Imperial Brands) have invested in Swedish-style snus and related products called nicotine pouches, which they have promoted as part of their harm reduction strategies.


Nicotine pouches are similar to snus pouches as they are made to be placed between the lip and gum, and do not require spitting. However, they do not contain tobacco leaf but a form of dehydrated nicotine (with added flavours) and do not need to be kept cold.2 Nicotine is absorbed into the bloodstream via the mucous membranes in the mouth.23 The pouches also generally contain plant fibres, flavourings and sweeteners.3 They are not new products and similar oral pouches with contents other than nicotine have been available in Sweden for many years, regulated as food.3

TTCs have identified opportunities to market these products in countries where there is either an existing market for snus, or conversely in markets where tobacco snus is currently banned.2

Researchers have cautioned that nicotine pouches in particular may appeal to youth and non-smokers, as they are often sold in a variety of fruit flavours, in attractive packaging, and can be used discreetly (more so than e-cigarettes).24  They can also contain high levels of nicotine where unregulated.4

“Tobacco Free”

It appears that some nicotine pouches, may use synthetic, or “tobacco-free”, nicotine (rather than nicotine derived from tobacco leaf),  creating confusion and uncertainty as to how best to regulate these products.2567

In its 2022 annual report, BAT states that its “current portfolio contains no synthetic nicotine”.8 PMI states that its pouches contain “nicotine derived from tobacco”.9 JTI and Imperial Brands do not refer to synthetic nicotine and describe their pouches as “tobacco-free”.10111213

In 2022, the UK independent scientific Committee on Toxicity (COT) noted in a discussion paper:

“the apparent variation in how manufacturers present nicotine content and strength across different products, which may be confusing for the consumer. In addition, use of the description ‘tobacco-free’ may be misleading as the nicotine may be derived from tobacco, which raises concerns regarding carry over of toxicologically relevant contaminants (e.g., metals and nitrosamines).”14

COT also raised concerns around the lack of specific regulations for nicotine pouches in the UK, and the absence of data other than that produced by the industry.14 COT planned to produce a full report for the UK government in autumn 2023.14

See below for more on regulation.

A diagram showing which companies own which nicotine pouches

Figure 1: Images of nicotine pouch brands owned by the largest tobacco companies as of 2023. (Source: TCRG. Product images from company websites)

Cigarette Companies Investing in Nicotine Pouches

The interests of the four main TTCs are summarised below, as well as those of Altria which also sells nicotine pouches outside the US. PMI was the last to acquire this product through its purchase of Swedish Match in 2022

British American Tobacco

In 2019, BAT introduced nicotine pouches to its portfolio, marketing them as Lyft in the UK and Velo in the US.151617 A July 2019 news report suggested that BAT’s nicotine pouches were also on sale in Sweden, Italy and Tanzania.18 BAT started  promoting Lyft /Velo in “emerging markets” in LMICs (see below).

In November 2020, BAT announced that it had acquired US-based nicotine pouch company Dryft Sciences, via its subsidiary Reynolds American Inc. (RAI), with the pouches to be sold under the Velo brand.19 According to BAT this would give them a combined share in the US nicotine pouches market of around 10%.19

BAT distinguished Epok, Lyft and Velo from traditional snus and allocated them to a new product category, which it called “modern oral products”.15 In November 2019, it announced that it would consolidate its NGPs under fewer brand names, and all its “modern oral” products would be sold as Velo.20 It continues to market the product as Lyft in Sweden and Denmark.21 It also sells nicotine pouches under its Niconovum brand Zonnic in Sweden.22

BAT reported that it had sold 4 billion pouches in 2022 worldwide, and held 69% of the market in Europe, although sales in the US had declined since 2021.823 It had launched new products ranges called Velo Mini and Velo Max.8 It also referred to an estimate that the global nicotine pouch market would grow by 500% by 2026.8

Japan Tobacco International

Japan Tobacco International sells its  Nordic Spirit brand of nicotine pouches, mainly in Europe.2425 In its 2020 integrated report Japan Tobacco stated that the pouch was sold in nine countries, and that it held 70% of the UK market.2627 In 2021, it said that it “prioritized Sweden, Switzerland and the UK”.28 In 2022, JTI announced that it had test-launched Nordic Spirit in the Philippines and was planning to launch a new “formula” in the UK.11

JTI also refers to its nicotine pouches as “modern oral” products.

Imperial Brands

In May 2018, Imperial Brands announced that it had launched a version of its snus brand Skruf without tobacco leaf, called Skruf Super White, intended for sale in Sweden and Norway.29 This product appears to have been rebranded zoneX for the UK market in August 2019.303132 Imperial discontinued direct sales of zoneX in the UK.33 In 2022 Imperial’s website stated that ZoneX had “first launched in Sweden and Austria” in 2021.13

In December 2020, IMB published an article on its Imperial Science website exploring what it described as “The Tobacco-Free Nicotine Pouch Opportunity”.34 In 2021, Imperial said that it has launched a “cutting edge bamboo fibre based product”.35 In 2022, it stated that it had launched ZoneX in Norway, Denmark and Estonia.1213 In 2023, its website stated that is was available in Iceland and “duty-free in the Middle East”.13

Imperial’s website describes ZoneX users as:

“young adult nicotine users, typically 25+, urban and open-minded. They’re making lifestyle changes and favour a discreet way to enjoy nicotine.”13

In 2023, Imperial acquired several nicotine pouch brands from Canadian company TJP Labs, to market in the US.36


In 2019 Altria announced that it was acquiring an 80% share in oral nicotine pouch on! from Swiss tobacco company Burger Sohne.3738 It set up a new subsidiary Helix Innovations, through which it would manufacture and market the product.3738 Altria stated that, as on! was already on sale across the US before August 2016, it did not require pre-market authorisation from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).37 However, by mid-2020 it had submitted 35 Pre-Market Tobacco Product Applications (PMTA) for on!, it was sold in 40,000 US stores, and Helix was increasing manufacturing capacity.39 According to Altria, by the end of 2020 the number of stores selling on! had nearly doubled.40 According to a 2020 investor transcript the product was “attracting female tobacco consumers due to its spitless, white and compact format” and accounted for 30% of this type of oral nicotine product.41

In 2021, Altria acquired the remaining 20% of on!.42 In 2022, it stated that it held over 20% of the UK nicotine pouch market, although the category was “increasingly competitive”.43 It also stated that Helix operates internationally, although most of its oral products are sold in the US.43 As of February 2023, the FDA had not issued marketing order decisions for any on! products.43

Philip Morris International

At the beginning of 2021, PMI did not have a nicotine pouch product on the market. However, in a presentation to investors in February that year, the company noted the “attractive economics” of this small, but growing, product category.44 CEO Andre Calantzopoulos said PMI was planning develop a product through a “combination of partnerships and internal development”.45

In May 2021, PMI acquired Danish snus manufacturer AG Snus, manufacturer of Shiro nicotine pouches.4647 For more details see Cigarette Companies investing in Snus.

In July 2021, PMI announced that it had acquired Fertin Pharma, a company specialising in nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) type products.48 At this time, PMI also began referring to gums and nicotine pouches as “modern oral” products, as BAT does.48

At this time, PMI began referring to gums and nicotine pouches as “modern oral” products (as does BAT).48

In 2022, PMI acquired Swedish Match.49 Swedish Match specialises in snus and nicotine pouches, and does not sell cigarettes. By 2023, Shiro nicotine pouches were presented on the PMI website, along with snus, as “oral smokeless products”.50 Its nicotine pouch Zyn has been sold mainly in Sweden and some other European countries, as well as the US (since 2015).51 It also sells the Volt Pearls product in Denmark, Iceland and Sweden.9 As of July 2023, the UK Zyn website was marked as under construction.52

In its 2022 annual report, PMI stated that the Zyn trademark had an “indefinite life due to the fast growth and the leading position of the brand in the market”.9

The Global Market

In 2020, market research company Euromonitor International published a report which put the value of the global market at US$800 million, and forecasted 8% growth by 2025.53 Other estimates suggest that the market could be worth over US$20 billion by 2030.54

According to Euromonitor the total global value of product sales in 2020 was nearly US$3 billion, and rose to over US$8 billion in 2022, (all figures are rounded).55 Although this does not reflect the underlying value of the market, it indicates that growth has accelerated.

Euromonitor records sales of nicotine pouches at global, regional and country level.55 In 2019, it recorded global sales of just over 2.5 billion units, rising steadily to nearly 17 billion units in 2022, an increase of around 580%.55 In 2023, Euromonitor analysts noted that this growth has mainly been in the US, with the exception of a rapid increase in Pakistan where BAT markets Velo (see below).56

A breakdown by region is shown in figure 2 below (no data was recorded for Africa or the Middle East).

An image of a bar graph showing sales of nicotine pouches by region

Figure 2: Sales of nicotine pouches in million units, by region, 2019-2022.(Source Euromonitor International)55

In 2022, 75% of sales recorded by Euromonitor were in the US, 10.8% in Sweden, 3.5% in Denmark and 2.4% in Pakistan. Sales in the UK were less than 1% of the global total. Other LMICs registering sales were Uzbekistan, Ukraine and Indonesia, all with less than 1% share.55

PMI’s purchase of Swedish Match immediately gave it a 60% share of the global market in 2022, from less than 1% in 2021. BAT held nearly 16%, Altria 8.5%, Swisher (a US-based tobacco company which also sells cigars, snus and snuff, and other nicotine products)57 held a 6% share. Others, including JTI and Imperial Brands, held 1% or less.58

Regulation of Nicotine Pouches

Nicotine pouches are subject to a variety of regulations around the world, from outright bans to partial or selective regulation, depending on how they are defined and classified by governments. In many cases no regulation is in place. The Institute for Global Tobacco Control (IGTC) tracks and reports regulatory approaches around the world (see below).59 Although not all countries contribute to its Policy Scans for nicotine pouches, the most up to date information available on the IGTC database at time of writing is referenced below.

In the UK, as of 2023, nicotine pouches are regulated under general consumer product safety regulations, not as tobacco products. They are widely available in shops and online.145960 Concerns have been raised over their availability to youth, and social media marketing.146162 The UK Department of Health and Social Care stated that it was aware of concerns, but as the use of pouches was low (in England) it did not plan to introduce further regulation at this time.62

European Union

While there is an EU-wide ban on tobacco snus, nicotine pouches are not covered by current tobacco product regulations. This is subject to review in the next revision of the Tobacco Products Directive.6364 However, individual member countries are diverging in the way they regulate these products.

Sweden has an exemption from the EU ban on snus.64 In Sweden, pouches containing products other than tobacco and nicotine have long been regulated as food items.3 Zonnic oral pouches (owned by RAI from 2009,65 and BAT from 2017) were registered as an over-the-counter (non-prescription) drug in 2013, but only available from pharmacies and other regulated outlets.66 There are a range of nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) products registered under the same brand name (see below). In 2019, the Swedish National Food Administration advised that nicotine pouches should not now be regulated as food, as they were intended to be spat out and the contents were mostly absorbed through the mouth, not the stomach.3

Elsewhere in Europe regulation varies widely. In France nicotine is classified as a poisonous substance, subject to regulation, but pouches can be regulated as a medicine for cessation purposes.59 In Finland nicotine pouches are no longer classified as medicines, unless marketed as such.67 In Norway (not in the EU but a member of the European Economic Area) a total ban on nicotine pouches and other newer products was lifted in July 2021, and replaced by a market approval scheme.6869 Both tobacco-derived and synthetic nicotine pouches are regulated, but advertising and sponsorship are banned.59

In contrast, in March 2023, Belgium announced a total ban on nicotine pouches, by royal decree.7071 BAT were reported to be petitioning the courts to annul the decree.72 The Netherlands announced a ban a month later.7374

In 2021, the German Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) stated that nicotine pouches were not regulated under either the tobacco legislation or as foodstuffs and so could not be legally sold.75 BAT removed its nicotine pouches from the German market that year.75 Some federal states have withdrawn pouches, and some products have been classified as a health hazard due to high levels of nicotine.59

North America

In the US, nicotine pouches are regulated by the FDA and subject to age restrictions, a nicotine health warning and pre-market assessment .64 There are also regulations specific to synthetic nicotine.76 Nicotine pouches are freely available to consumers.51 US researchers have noted a “loophole”: as nicotine pouches were not included in the smokeless tobacco regulation, companies are able to advertise nicotine pouches on radio, TV and other media.54

Initially the Canadian government did not authorise the sale of nicotine pouches, and issued an alert, stating that as they had not been assessed by “safety, efficacy and quality” they might contain high levels of nicotine and be harmful to health.77 These products are now regulated, either classified as a ‘Natural Health Product’ or as a prescription drug, depending on the level of nicotine.59 In July 2023, Health Canada authorized the marketing of BAT’s Zonnic nicotine pouch (with 4mg of nicotine) as a natural health product.78798081 Physicians for a Smoke-Free Canada reported that this product contains the same ingredients as BAT’s Velo,80 and noted that:

“BAT will face very few restrictions on how it can market ZONNIC nicotine pouches in Canada, other than with respect to how it represents the therapeutic benefits of the product.”80

Australia & New Zealand

As with e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products, nicotine pouches are banned from sale in Australia, and only available on prescription.59

In New Zealand, oral tobacco products (including snus) and nicotine pouches are banned, unless approved as medicines.59 (E-cigarettes are regulated, but not banned)

New and emerging markets

In some low and middle-income countries, including Argentina, Bangladesh, Georgia, Indonesia, India, and Nigeria, only tobacco-derived products are regulated as tobacco products, but not those derived from synthetic nicotine.59 In others, including Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Iran, Thailand both are regulated as tobacco products.59 In Ukraine there are no specific regulations in place, but synthetic nicotine pouches are regulated as a food product.59 Mauritius bans both,59 whereas in Uruguay, nicotine pouches are categorised as a form of nicotine replacement therapy (see below).59

At the time of writing, July 2023, nicotine pouches remain unregulated in most countries.59

As researchers from Norway, among others, have pointed out:

“The boundaries between various tobacco and nicotine products are getting less clear, making it possible for the tobacco and nicotine industries to take advantage of the discrepancies in regulation.”4

BAT Promoting Nicotine Pouches in LMICs

BAT began marketing Lyft in Kenya in 2019, and Pakistan in 2020. In 2021, BAT said that it was also test marketing its product in Bangladesh and Indonesia.83 and “consumers are familiar with other similar oral products”.84 The company has identified an opportunity to market these products in countries where electronic devices are less popular, affordable, or available due to regulatory restrictions. It also referred to markets where there is was a “pre-existing ritual of oral product consumption”.8384


After announcing its intention to sell nicotine pouches in Kenya, BAT launched Lyft in the country in December 2019.188586 In February 2020, the company announced that it was planning to build a new factory in Nairobi to produce nicotine pouches, and for Kenya to become a regional export hub for the product.87 BAT Kenya (BATK) managing director, Beverley Spencer-Obatoyinbo said that “Given the high incidence of oral stimulant use among smokers, we believe that this new product category will provide a viable alternative to smoking”, although she presented no evidence at the time to support this statement.87

In response to concerns about the potential impact on tobacco farmers, Business Daily Africa reported that BATK’s head of legal and external affairs stated that the company was “using proceeds from the tobacco portfolio to invest in the new categories. When the time comes, we will help them (farmers) transition to sustainable crops,” although this was “not a change that can happen overnight”.88 Spencer-Obatyoinbo confirmed that BAT switching to “non-combustibles” was “not an immediate thing”.88 Nevertheless, in September 2020, BAT was reported to be lobbying the Kenyan Revenue Authority (KRA) for a tax break for the product, citing its large investment and potential exports.89 (According to BAT the nicotine for its pouches is currently manufactured in Switzerland.)89 The Chief Executive of the International Institute for Legislative Affairs argued that this would be a “huge setback for tobacco control interventions in Kenya”.90 For more information see the Kenya country profile page.

The product was initially registered as a pharmaceutical product by the Kenya poisons board.91 This designation was challenged by local advocates.91 Health Cabinet Secretary Mutahi Kagwe wrote to the poisons board, arguing that the product had been wrongly designated, and stated that it was being distributed via vending machines in contravention of the law.9192 Although Lyft was de-registered and effectively banned, there was a reported lack of enforcement and the product was found to still be on sale in December 2020.9293 In February 2021, the Kenyan government said that it was intending to classify nicotine pouches as a tobacco product under the Tobacco Control Act, making the product subject to similar marketing restrictions as cigarettes and other tobacco products.92 Concerns have been raised in Kenya over potential use by children (see below).

In February 2021, BAT told investors that “In Kenya, we have temporarily suspended sales due to local regulatory challenges and continue to engage with the local authorities.”83 In March it told the Kenyan media that it was planning to spend Kenya Sh1 billion (US $10 million) on marketing Lyft once the product was approved.94 This included plans to set up distribution networks across 21 countries in the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA).94

In 2022, BAT’s nicotine pouch was back on the market in Kenya, as Velo.95 In its annual report, BAT stated it had “reintroduced Velo to a limited retail universe with positive early momentum, as we focus on driving guided trial.”8

BAT has lobbied against increased taxes on these products.969798


Velo was launched by BAT in Pakistan in December 2019, with a campaign run by Ogilvy Pakistan “positioned towards affluent adult consumers”.99100101

A Freedom of Information Request submitted by Bath TCRG revealed that UK High Commission staff in Pakistan had attended a “social event” for Velo in February 2020. The FOI stated that “They were invited by the event coordinator and did not meet any Velo representatives at the event.”102

In its 2022 annual report, BAT stated that Pakistan was its third largest market for nicotine pouches, selling over 40 million a month, “ enabled by powerful, consumer-centric digital activations”.8 Euromonitor International recorded sales of over 400 million units in Pakistan in 2022, more than double the previous year, with BAT having 100% of the market.55 The company also said it was “particularly proud of Velo’s performance in Pakistan”.23


In February 2021, BAT referred to the test marketing its nicotine pouches in Indonesia and reported “encouraging results”.83 Euromonitor International recorded sales of just over 4 thousand units in 2022, a figure which had increased little since 2020.55 Virtually all of the market share was held by BAT.58

Concerns Around Use by Youth

Researchers in the US have identified the risk of nicotine pouches appealing to non-smokers and in particular youth, as some products come in a range of fruit flavours and are more discreet than e-cigarettes.2103 Although they can only legally be sold to adults in the UK, concerns have been raised over potential use by children.14104

In 2020, there were reports that Lyft was being used by children in Kenya.87105 Children were also reported to be using the products in schools in Scotland.106

In February 2021, journalists from the Bureau of Investigative Journalism published an article describing how BAT used social media influencers to promote its nicotine pouches in multiple countries, including Kenya and Pakistan. The authors argued that this was part of a campaign targeted at young people, rather than older adults trying to quit smoking.107108

An investigation by The Guardian newspaper in 2023 identified further promotion in the UK via social media and music events, as well as prize draws and the provision of free samples.62

BAT also promotes Velo through motorsport sponsorship.109110

Framing Nicotine Pouches as NRT

TTCs appear to be framing their nicotine pouches as a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), which is designed to help smokers quit.111112113 However, they are also marketing them as consumer products.114115

In 2016, researchers in the US pointed to the implications for both product regulation and smoking cessation,65 and the:

“blurring of the lines between cessation products and novel tobacco products and potentially confusion and misuse by consumers which may result in initiation or situational and dual use of tobacco products.”65

All four of the main transnational tobacco companies have conducted their own research on nicotine pouches, published on their science websites.

BAT markets Niconovum NRT products, in the US and Sweden under the brand name Zonnic; in Sweden, Zonnic products include nicotine pouches.22116117 In 2020, BAT also rebranded its Revel nicotine lozenge as Velo – the same brand as its nicotine pouchin the US (and submitted it for pre-market approval).118119

In its 2022 annual report, BAT stated that “[t]he weight of evidence suggest Modern Oral nicotine pouches have a profile that is comparable to nicotine replacement therapy products”. It cited BAT’s 2021 research on Velo, which compared snus, nicotine pouches and NRTs.8120 However, the 2022 report then went on to acknowledge “low levels of average daily consumption and high poly-usage”, leading BAT to submit a further PMTA for a “superior” product.8 As of February 2023, no Velo products had received pre-market approval in the US.8 At the time of writing, it was not yet clear how BAT planned to promote its Zonnic nicotine pouch after it was approved for sale over-the-counter in Canada in July 2023.787981

BAT’s science website presents its research on nicotine pouches, as well as a summary of the ‘Snus and the Swedish Experience’.121 For more background on this topic see The Swedish Experience.

PMI acquired Fertin Pharma in 2021, stating that Fertin was a “leading producer of Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) solutions”.48 PMI has also referred to the “medical” or “pharmaceutical” grade nicotine in its products.9122 (Read more about on PMI’s acquisition of pharmaceutical companies.)

PMI’s science website presents its research on nicotine pouches.122 It does not refer to its snus products on these pages.122123124

Imperial Brands, on its science website, has cited evidence on tobacco-leaf snus and other NGPs to support its statement that “these products are more satisfying – and acceptable – to adult smokers than traditional nicotine replacement products (NRTs) like patches, lozenges, and gums”.34  However, the evidence it cites pre-dates the widespread sale of nicotine pouches by TTCs: the 2016 report from the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) refers only to Zonnic and does not discuss satisfaction of acceptability of the product.113

Imperial refers to its use of “high purity pharmaceutical grade nicotine”.34125 In May 2021, Imperial published its “comprehensive scientific assessment” of its nicotine pouches, in comparison to cigarettes.126

Japan Tobacco‘s science website does not feature nicotine pouches, although it includes  its research on these products.127

Environmental Impact

The impact of cigarette filters on the environment is well documented. More recently, the impact of single use, or ‘disposable’, e-cigarettes has been highlighted

As the nicotine pouch market grows the disposal of these single use products is an emerging concern.128129

TobaccoTactics Resources

TCRG Research

For a comprehensive list of all TCRG publications, including TCRG research that evaluates the impact of public health policy, go to the Bath TCRG’s list of publications.

Print Friendly, PDF & Email


  1. STOP, Addiction At Any Cost: The Truth About Philip Morris International, 20 February 2020, accessed January 2021
  2. abcdefM.O. Robichaud, A.B. Seidenberg, M.J. Byron, Tobacco companies introduce ‘tobacco-free’ nicotine pouches, Tobacco Control, 2020;29:e145-e146. Published Online First: 21 November 2019, updated December 2020. Doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2019-055321
  3. abcdeLivsmedelsverket [National Food Administration, Sweden], Ställningstagande angående snusliknande produkter utan tobak [Opinion on snus-like products without tobacco], statement, 18 February 2019 (in Swedish)
  4. abcM. Salokannel, E.Ollila, Snus and snus-like nicotine products moving across Nordic borders: Can laws protect young people? Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, March 2021, doi:10.1177/1455072521995704
  5. L. Czaplicki, M. Patel, B. Rahman et al, Oral nicotine marketing claims in direct-mail advertising, Tobacco Control 2022;31:663-666, doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-056446
  6. T. Schmid, Smokeless Alternatives on the Upswing, Tobacco Asia, 3 February 2021, accessed March 2021
  7. T. Schmid, A Real Up and Comer: Synthetic Nicotine, Tobacco Asia, 14 February 2020, accessed March 2021
  8. abcdefghiBritish American Tobacco, Combined Annual and ESG Report 2022, available from
  9. abcdPhilip Morris, Annual Report 2022, available from
  10. Japan Tobacco International, Reduced Risk Products: Oral products, website, undated, accessed July 2023
  11. abJapan Tobacco, Integrated Report 2022, available from
  12. abImperial Brands, Annual Report 2022, available from
  13. abcdeImperial Brands, Brands of choice: ZONE X, website, undated, accessed July 2023
  14. abcdefCommittee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment (COT), First draft statement on the bioavailability of nicotine from the use of oral nicotine pouches and assessment of the potential toxicological risk to users, 1 July 2022, available from
  15. abBritish American Tobacco, Modern and traditional oral products, BAT website, undated, accessed November 2019
  16. C. Gretler, Grandad’s Tobacco Gets a Makeover, Bloomberg, 23 August 2019, accessed November 2019
  17. British American Tobacco sets the pace in Potentially Reduced Risk Products, Grocery Trader, 31 March 2019, accessed November 2019
  18. abCapital FM, Kenya: BAT to Launch Smoke-Free Cigarettes in Kenya,, 19 July 2019, accessed November 2019
  19. abR. Chang, T. Kary, BAT Buys Dryft Sciences’ Pouches Business in Oral Nicotine Push, Bloomberg, 3 November 2020, accessed November 2020
  20. British American Tobacco, British American Tobacco to focus on three global new category brands to further accelerate their growth, News Release, BAT website, 28 November 2019, accessed December 2019
  21. British American Tobacco (Nicoventures), About Velo, product website, undated, accessed July 2023
  22. abBritish American Tobacco/Reynolds American Inc., About Niconovum, website, undated, accessed August 2023
  23. abBritish American Tobacco, Velo: What is Velo?, corporate website, undated, accessed July 2022
  24. Nordic Snus, LD Nordic Spirit, undated, accessed November 2019
  25. JTI Sweden, JTI Sweden and Nordic Snus, accessed November 2019
  26. Japan Tobacco, Integrated Report 2020, accessed March 2021
  27. Japan Tobacco, Integrated Report 2020, available from
  28. Japan Tobacco, Integrated Report 2021, available from
  29. Imperial Brands, Tobacco-Free Innovation Ushers in New Era Skruf, 13 December 2018, accessed November 2019
  30. Paul, ZoneX Nicotine Pouches Review, 26 August 2019,, accessed November 2019
  31. Imperial Tobacco Limited, ZoneX UK website, registered in August 2019, accessed November 2019
  32. Imperial Brands, Annual Report 2020, accessed March 2021
  33. Imperial Tobacco Limited, ZoneX End of Sales Notice, website, archived June 2021, accessed July 2023
  34. abcImperial Brands, The Tobacco-Free Nicotine Pouch Opportunity, IMB Science website, 12 December 2020, accessed March 2021
  35. Imperial Brands, Annual Report 2021, available from
  36. Imperial Brands, Imperial acquires US nicotine pouches range from TJP, press release, 23 June 2023, accessed July 2023
  37. abcA. LaVito, Altria takes stake in Swiss tobacco company Burger Sohne’s global businesses for $372 million as cigarette sales shrink, CNBC, 3 June 2019, accessed January 2020.
  38. abAltria Enters Growing Oral Nicotine Products Category with on! Pouch Product, Business Wire, 3 June 2019, accessed January 2020
  39. Altria, Altria Reports Second Quarter and First Half Results, press release, 28 July 2020, accessed March 2021
  40. Altria, Altria Reports Fourth Quarter and Full Year Results, press release, 28 July 2020, accessed March 2021
  41. Motley Fool, Altria Group (MO) Q2 2020 Earnings Call Transcript, 28 January 2021, accessed March 2021
  42. Altria, Annual Report 2021, available from altria.com130Altria Increases Investment in Noncombustible Tobacco, Convenience Store News, 4 May 2021, accessed July 2023
  43. abcAltria, Annual Report 2022, available from
  44. Philip Morris International, Investor Day 2021: The Next Growth Phase, presentation, 10 February 2020, accessed March 2021
  45. Philip Morris International, Virtual Investor Day 2021, transcript, accessed March 2021
  46. Mazanti-Andersen, AG Snus Aktieselskab sold to Phillip Morris International, law firm website, 7 May 2020, accessed July 2021
  47. Open Corporates, AG Snus Aktieselskab, Company number 32883044, accessed July 2021
  48. abcdPhilip Morris International, Philip Morris International Announces Agreement to Acquire Fertin Pharma, press release, 1 July 2021, accessed July 2021
  49. Philip Morris International, PMHH acquires shares in Swedish Match outside the offer and becomes the owner of nearly 86% of the shares, BusinessWire, 10 November 2022, accessed November 2022
  50. Philip Morris International, Oral smokeless products, website, undated, archived February 2023, accessed July 2023
  51. abH. Prokop, Nicotine Pouches, Tobacco’s Fast-Growing Subcategory, CSP Daily, 16 October 2020, accessed March 2021
  52. Philip Morris International, Zyn website, accessed July 2023
  53. Euromonitor International, Passport: Nicotine pouches, a viable alternative to smoking?, November 2020 (subscription)
  54. abL.S. Sparrock, L. Phan, J. Chen-Sankey et al, Nicotine Pouch: Awareness, Beliefs, Use, and Susceptibility among Current Tobacco Users in the United States, 2021, Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2023 Jan 22;20(3):2050. doi: 10.3390/ijerph20032050
  55. abcdefgEuromonitor International, Nicotine pouches: Market size 2018-22, accessed July 2023 (subscription)
  56. Euromonitor International, Passport Tobacco: Key insights, 22 May 2023, accessed July 2023 (subscription)
  57. Swisher International Group, Swisher: Businesses, website, undated, accessed July 2023
  58. abEuromonitor International, Nicotine pouches: Brand shares 2018-22, accessed July 2023 (behind paywall)
  59. abcdefghijklmnInstitute for Global Tobacco Control, Policy Scan: Nicotine Pouches, website, accessed July 2023
  60. Action on Smoking and Health, Awareness and Use of Nicotine Pouches: ASH Smokefree GB survey 2022, available from
  61. S. Marsh, Instagram influencers advertising nicotine products to young people, charity warns, The Guardian, 12 June 2023, accessed July 2023
  62. abcS. Das, Influencers and freebies: Big Tobacco’s push to sell nicotine pouches in UK, The Guardian (The Observer), 30 July 2023, accessed July 2023
  63. European Commission, Revision of the Tobacco Product Directive, website, undated, accessed July 2023
  64. abcC. Fjellner, Innovation and Less Harmful Alternatives to Tobacco: The Case of Nicotine Pouches Regulation, Policy Brief, The European Centre for International Political Economy, April 2020, accessed March 2021. Note: The author Christofer Fjellner is a Swedish former Member of European Parliament (MEP) who opposed the EU ban on snus
  65. abcG. Kostygina, L. England, P. Ling, New Product Marketing Blurs the Line Between Nicotine Replacement Therapy and Smokeless Tobacco Products, Am J Public Health, 2016 Jul;106(7):1219-22. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303057
  66. Lakemedelsverket [Swedish Medical Products Agency, Zonnic Mint 2 mg munhålepulver i portionspåse [Zonnic Mint 2 mg oral cavity powder in a sachet], website, accessed March 2021
  67. Finnish Medicines Agency (Fimea), Fimea supports legislative reform concerning nicotine pouches, website, 4 April 2023, accessed July 2023
  68. Helsedirekroratet, Tobacco Control in Norway, website, undated, accessed July 2023
  69. TOLL Customs, New tobacco and nicotine products, website, updated 27 June 2023, accessed July 2023
  70. Government of Belgium, Arrêté royal relatif à l’interdiction de mise sur le marché de certains produits similaires, 14 March 2023, available from
  71. Belgian ban: nicotine and cannabinoid pouch sales to be illegal this year, Tobacco Intelligence, 14 April 2023, accessed July 2023 (paywall)
  72. BAT petitions Belgium not to ban nicotine pouches, but to follow the Swedish model, Tobacco Intelligence, 13 June 2023, accessed July 2023 (paywall)
  73. Netherlands bans sales of all nicotine pouches, Reuters, 21 April 2023, accessed July 2023
  74. Netherlands: Government Proposes Total Ban on Nicotine Pouches, Library of Congress, website, 28 April 2023, accessed July 2023
  75. abD. Palacios Rubio, BAT pulls Velo out of German market due to uncertainty over legality of pouches, Tobacco Intelligence blog, 8 July 2021, accessed July 2021
  76. US Food and Drug Administration, Regulation and Enforcement of Non-Tobacco Nicotine (NTN) Products, updated 9 June 2023, accessed July 2023
  77. Health Canada, Unauthorized nicotine buccal pouches may pose serious health risks, Recalls and safety alerts website, 2 November 2020, accessed March 2021
  78. abHealth Canada, Natural Product Number (NPN):80125630 (Zonnic), database entry, undated, accessed August 2023
  79. abLung Saskatchewan, Health Canada approves BAT’s Zonnic non-tobacco nicotine pouch for sale in Canada, website, 24 July 2023, accessed August 2023
  80. abcPhysicians for a Smoke-Free Canada, BAT shoehorns its nicotine pouches onto the Canadian market, blog, 21 July 2023, accessed August 2023
  81. abBAT’s Zonnic approval ‘could open a path into Canada for other nicotine pouches, Tobacco Intelligence, 8 August 2023, accessed August 2023
  82. World Health Organisation, WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic 2021: addressing new and emerging products, August 2021
  83. abcdBritish American Tobacco, 2020 Preliminary Results, press release, 17 February 2021, accessed March 2021
  84. abBritish American Tobacco, 2020 Preliminary Results, webcast transcript, 17 February 2021, accessed March 2021
  85. T. Rajula, Explainers: All about nicotine pouches, Daily Nation, 4 December 2019, accessed December 2019
  86. J. Otieno, All eyes on Health ministry over control of tobacco use, Standard Digital, 15 December 2019, accessed December 2019
  87. abcP. Alushula, BAT to build Sh2.5bn nicotine pouch plant, Business Daily, 21 February 2020, accessed September 2020
  88. abD. Wainainah, Tobacco farmers face losses in BAT plan, Business Daily Africa, 16 September 2020, accessed September 2020
  89. abC. Munda, BAT eyes tax holiday for nicotine pouches, Business Daily, 17 September 2020, accessed October 2020
  90. C.Awour, Anticipated tax holiday for BAT nicotine pouches will be a huge setback for tobacco control interventions in Kenya, International Institute for Legislative Affairs website, 7 October 2020, accessed March 2021
  91. abcM. Saya, Registration of nicotine pouches LYFT illegal, Kagwe declares, The Star, 7 October 2020, accessed March 2021
  92. abcM.Ngugi, State to classify BAT nicotine pouches as Tobacco products, Business Daily,  23 February 2020, accessed February 2020
  93. M. Saya, Anti-tobacco lobbies raise concerns over sale of Lyft, The Star, 11 December 2020, accessed March 2021
  94. abC. Munda, BAT lines up Sh1bn to market pouches, Business Daily Africa, 22 March 2021, accessed March 2021
  95. H. Aloo, BAT reverses ban to relaunch nicotine pouches in Kenya, The Africa Report,31 August 2022, accessed July 2023
  96. C. Awuor, Granting Tax Holiday for BAT Nicotine Pouch Plant a Bad Idea, International Institute for Legislative Affairs, 19 October 2021, accessed July 2021
  97. H. Aloo, BAT-Kenya lobbying for tax reduction to give Lyft a lifeline in Africa, theafricareport, 20 May 2022, accessed July 2023
  98. C. Munda, BAT ties production of nicotine pouches to lower taxes, Business Daily, 12 April 2023, accessed July 2023
  99. British American Tobacco, VELO Tobaco [sic] Free Nicotine Pouch launched in Pakistan, YouTube, accessed March 2021
  100. Here’s what happened at the grand launch of Velo Pakistan, Something Haute, 27 December 2019, accessed March 2021
  101. T.Hasan, Launching a Velo lifestyle, Aurora Dawn, Jan-Feb 2020, accessed March 2021
  102. Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office, Freedom of Information Act 2000 – request ref: FOI2021/01726, 23 February 2021
  103. Truth Initiative, Flavoured tobacco use among youth and young adults, website, undated, accessed March 2021
  104. S. Brown, ‘The legal loophole letting nicotine pouches be sold to children needs addressing’, Nursing Times, 8 March 2023, accessed July 2023
  105. Kenyan parents fight sale of Lyft, BAT’s new nicotine product, Nation, 21 August 2020, accessed September 2020
  106. C. Smith, Schools urge parents to be wary about nicotine pouch craze sweeping Fife’s playgrounds, The Courier, 8 December 2020, accessed March 2020
  107. M. Chapman, New products, old tricks? Concerns big tobacco is targeting youngsters, Bureau of Investigative Journalism, 21 February 2021, accessed March 2021
  108. R. Davis, M. Chapman, Tobacco giant bets £1bn on influencers to boost ‘more lung-friendly’ sales, The Guardian, 21 February 2021, accessed March 2021
  109. N. Derbali, Zandvoort commercials show how motorsport has never completely let go of the tobacco industry [translated], 17 August 2023, accessed August 2023 (paywall)
  110. Adverts for nicotine pouches at Grand Prix “bizarre”: charities [translated], Dutch News, 17 August 2023, accessed August 2023
  111. World Health Organization, Quitting Toolkit: Medications, website, 2021, accessed August 2023
  112. A. Theodoulou, S.C. Chepkin,W. Ye et al,  Different doses, durations and modes of delivery of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation,  Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2023, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD013308, doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013308.pub2
  113. abRoyal College of Physicians, Nicotine without smoke: Tobacco Harm Reduction, April 2016
  114. Talbot EM, Giovenco DP, Grana R, et al, Cross-promotion of nicotine pouches by leading cigarette brands, Tobacco Control, 2023;32:528-529, 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2021-056899
  115. Z. Duan, L. Henriksen, D. Vallone D, et al, Nicotine pouch marketing strategies in the USA: an analysis of Zyn, On! and Velo, Tobacco Control, Published Online First: 11 July 2022, doi: 10.1136/tc-2022-057360
  116. British American Tobacco, Modern and traditional oral products, undated, accessed March 2021
  117. Lakemedelsverket [Swedish Medical Products Agency], Zonnic, search result for list of approved or registered drugs, website, accessed March 2021 (in Swedish)
  118. British American Tobacco, Same Lozenge New Name: Revel is Now Velo Nicotine Lozenges, blog, 20 September 2020, no longer accessible in July 2021
  119. Reynolds Submits First Velo PMTA, Tobacco Reporter, 24 August 2020, accessed July 2021
  120. British American Tobacco, Annual Report 2021, available from
  121. British American Tobacco, What are Modern Oral Products, BAT Science website, undated, archived March 2023, accessed July 2023
  122. abcPhilip Morris International, Oral Nicotine Pouches, PMI Science website, undated, archived June 2023, accessed July 2023
  123. Philip Morris International, PMI’s smoke-free products, PMI Science website, undated, archived June 2023, accessed July 2023
  124. Philip Morris International, PMI’s smoke-free products, PMI Science website, undated, archived June 2023, accessed July 2023
  125. Imperial Brands, Our Next Generation Products: Oral, Imperial Brands Science website, undated, accessed July 2023
  126. Imperial Brands, Research Update: Tobacco-Free Oral Nicotine Pouches, Imperial Brands Science website, 7 May 2021, accessed July 2023
  127. Japan Tobacco, Resource Hub [search for ‘other’ products], JT Science website, undated, accessed July 2023
  128. World Health Organization, Tobacco: poisoning our planet, 29 May 2022, available from
  129. M.M. Jensen, A. Granskov, L.K. Elmhoff, Nicotine sachets are thrown into nature: dangerous for animals and the environment [translated], DRTV, 6 August 2023, accessed August 2023
Go to Homepage